Next Article in Journal
Silver Nanomaterial-Immobilized Desalination Systems for Efficient Removal of Radioactive Iodine Species in Water
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluating Nanoshells and a Potent Biladiene Photosensitizer for Dual Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapy of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Lower-Sized Chitosan Nanocapsules for Transcutaneous Antigen Delivery

Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Química, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados “CIEN-UC”, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 659;
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 26 August 2018
PDF [5234 KB, uploaded 14 September 2018]


Transcutaneous vaccination has several advantages including having a noninvasive route and needle-free administration; nonetheless developing an effective transdermal formulation has not been an easy task because skin physiology, particularly the stratum corneum, does not allow antigen penetration. Size is a crucial parameter for successful active molecule administration through the skin. Here we report a new core-shell structure rationally developed for transcutaneous antigen delivery. The resulting multifunctional carrier has an oily core with immune adjuvant properties and a polymeric corona made of chitosan. This system has a size of around 100 nm and a positive zeta potential. The new formulation is stable in storage and physiological conditions. Ovalbumin (OVA) was used as the antigen model and the developed nanocapsules show high association efficiency (75%). Chitosan nanocapsules have high interaction with the immune system which was demonstrated by complement activation and also did not affect cell viability in the macrophage cell line. Finally, ex vivo studies using a pig skin model show that OVA associated to the chitosan nanocapsules developed in this study penetrated and were retained better than OVA in solution. Thus, the physicochemical properties and their adequate characteristics make this carrier an excellent platform for transcutaneous antigen delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocapsules; chitosan; antigen delivery; transcutaneous immunization; vaccine nanocapsules; chitosan; antigen delivery; transcutaneous immunization; vaccine

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bussio, J.I.; Molina-Perea, C.; González-Aramundiz, J.V. Lower-Sized Chitosan Nanocapsules for Transcutaneous Antigen Delivery. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 659.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nanomaterials EISSN 2079-4991 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top