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Platinum Nanoparticle Inclusion into a Carbonized Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity: Electrochemical Characteristics of a Catalyst for Electroless Hydrogen Peroxide Production

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
2
Departamento de Química Física e Instituto Universitario de Electroquímica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain
3
Cardiff Catalysis Institute, School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
4
East Chem, School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Joseph Black Building, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh, Scotland EH9 3FJ, UK
5
Department of Chemistry, Swansea University, College of Science, Grove Building, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
6
Hubei Engineering Research Center of RF-Microwave Technology and Application, School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070542
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Electrocatalytic Applications in Energy and Sensing)
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Abstract

The one-step vacuum carbonization synthesis of a platinum nano-catalyst embedded in a microporous heterocarbon ([email protected]) is demonstrated. A nitrogen-rich polymer of an intrinsic microporosity (PIM) precursor is impregnated with PtCl62− to give (after vacuum carbonization at 700 °C) a nitrogen-containing heterocarbon with embedded Pt nanoparticles of typically 1–4 nm diameter (with some particles up to 20 nm diameter). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of this hybrid material is 518 m2 g−1 (with a cumulative pore volume of 1.1 cm3 g−1) consistent with the surface area of the corresponding platinum-free heterocarbon. In electrochemical experiments, the heterocarbon-embedded nano-platinum is observed as reactive towards hydrogen oxidation, but essentially non-reactive towards bigger molecules during methanol oxidation or during oxygen reduction. Therefore, oxygen reduction under electrochemical conditions is suggested to occur mainly via a 2-electron pathway on the outer carbon shell to give H2O2. Kinetic selectivity is confirmed in exploratory catalysis experiments in the presence of H2 gas (which is oxidized on Pt) and O2 gas (which is reduced on the heterocarbon surface) to result in the direct formation of H2O2. View Full-Text
Keywords: heterocarbon; microporosity; voltammetry; peroxide; bifunctional catalysis heterocarbon; microporosity; voltammetry; peroxide; bifunctional catalysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Adamik, R.K.; Hernández-Ibáñez, N.; Iniesta, J.; Edwards, J.K.; Howe, A.G.R.; Armstrong, R.D.; Taylor, S.H.; Roldan, A.; Rong, Y.; Malpass-Evans, R.; Carta, M.; McKeown, N.B.; He, D.; Marken, F. Platinum Nanoparticle Inclusion into a Carbonized Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity: Electrochemical Characteristics of a Catalyst for Electroless Hydrogen Peroxide Production. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 542.

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