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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070524

Impact of Nano-Crystalline Diamond Enhanced Hydrophilicity on Cell Proliferation on Machined and SLA Titanium Surfaces: An In-Vivo Study in Rodents

1
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Department of Orthodontics, Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
3
DiaCoating GmbH, 6112 Wattens, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract

By coating surfaces with nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) particles, hydrophilicity can be altered via sidechain modifications without affecting surface texture. The present study aimed to assess the impact of NCD hydrophilicity on machined and rough SLA titanium discs on soft tissue integration, using a rodent model simulating submerged healing. Four different titanium discs (machined titanium = M Titanium, NCD-coated hydrophilic machined titanium = M-O-NCD, sand blasted acid etched (SLA Titanium) titanium, and hydrophilic NCD-coated SLA titanium = SLA O-NCD) were inserted in subdermal pockets of 12 Wistar rats. After one and four weeks of healing, the animals were sacrificed. Biopsies were embedded in methyl methacrylate (MMA), and processed for histology. The number of cells located within a region of interest (ROI) of 10 µm around the discs were counted and compared statistically. Signs of inflammation were evaluated descriptively employing immunohistochemistry. At one week, M-O-NCD coated titanium discs showed significantly higher amounts of cells compared to M Titanium, SLA Titanium, and SLA-O-NCD (p < 0.001). At four weeks, significant higher cell counts were noted at SLA-O-NCD surfaces (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased inflammatory responses at hydrophilic surfaces. Within the limits of an animal study, M-O-NCD surfaces seem to stimulate cell proliferation in the initial healing phase, whereas SLA-O-NCD surfaces appeared advantageous afterwards. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell proliferation; soft-tissue healing; chemical surface modification; surface treatment; hydrophilicitiy; nano-crystalline diamond coating cell proliferation; soft-tissue healing; chemical surface modification; surface treatment; hydrophilicitiy; nano-crystalline diamond coating
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Stigler, R.G.; Becker, K.; Bruschi, M.; Steinmüller-Nethl, D.; Gassner, R. Impact of Nano-Crystalline Diamond Enhanced Hydrophilicity on Cell Proliferation on Machined and SLA Titanium Surfaces: An In-Vivo Study in Rodents. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 524.

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