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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070523

Dual THz Wave and X-ray Generation from a Water Film under Femtosecond Laser Excitation

1
Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan
2
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Setsunan University, 17-8 Ikeda-Nakamachi, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8508, Japan
3
Nanotechnology Facility, Center for Micro-Photonics, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
4
Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, the Victorian Node of the Australian National Fabrication Facility, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
5
College of Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan
6
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Based Nano Fabrication and Nano Lithography)
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Abstract

Simultaneous emission of the THz wave and hard X-ray from thin water free-flow was induced by the irradiation of tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses (35 fs, 800 nm, 500 Hz) in air. Intensity measurements of the THz wave and X-ray were carried out at the same time with time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) based on electro-optic sampling with a ZnTe(110) crystal and a Geiger counter, respectively. Intensity profiles of the THz wave and X-ray emission as a function of the solution flow position along the incident laser axis at the laser focus show that the profile width of the THz wave is broader than that of the X-ray. Furthermore, the profiles of the THz wave measured in reflection and transmission directions show different features and indicate that THz wave emission is, under single-pulse excitation, induced mainly in laser-induced plasma on the water flow surface. Under double-pulse excitation with a time separation of 4.6 ns, 5–10 times enhancements of THz wave emission were observed. Such dual light sources can be used to characterise materials, as well as to reveal the sequence of material modifications under intense laser pulses. View Full-Text
Keywords: femtosecond laser; intense laser; water; THz wave; time-domain spectroscopy; X-ray; ablation; double-pulse excitation; plasma; z-scan; intensity enhancement femtosecond laser; intense laser; water; THz wave; time-domain spectroscopy; X-ray; ablation; double-pulse excitation; plasma; z-scan; intensity enhancement
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Huang, H.-H.; Nagashima, T.; Hsu, W.-H.; Juodkazis, S.; Hatanaka, K. Dual THz Wave and X-ray Generation from a Water Film under Femtosecond Laser Excitation. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 523.

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