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Open AccessArticle

Fabrication of Scaffold-Based 3D Magnetic Nanowires for Domain Wall Applications

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK
Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
Materials Science and Engineering Department and Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 483;
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 30 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Characterization of Nanowires)
Three-dimensional magnetic nanostructures hold great potential to revolutionize information technologies and to enable the study of novel physical phenomena. In this work, we describe a hybrid nanofabrication process combining bottom-up 3D nano-printing and top-down thin film deposition, which leads to the fabrication of complex magnetic nanostructures suitable for the study of new 3D magnetic effects. First, a non-magnetic 3D scaffold is nano-printed using Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition; then a thin film magnetic material is thermally evaporated onto the scaffold, leading to a functional 3D magnetic nanostructure. Scaffold geometries are extended beyond recently developed single-segment geometries by introducing a dual-pitch patterning strategy. Additionally, by tilting the substrate during growth, low-angle segments can be patterned, circumventing a major limitation of this nano-printing process; this is demonstrated by the fabrication of ‘staircase’ nanostructures with segments parallel to the substrate. The suitability of nano-printed scaffolds to support thermally evaporated thin films is discussed, outlining the importance of including supporting pillars to prevent deformation during the evaporation process. Employing this set of methods, a set of nanostructures tailored to precisely match a dark-field magneto-optical magnetometer have been fabricated and characterized. This work demonstrates the versatility of this hybrid technique and the interesting magnetic properties of the nanostructures produced, opening a promising route for the development of new 3D devices for applications and fundamental studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D-nanoprinting; Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition; nanomagnetism; FEBID; nanowire; nanofabrication; direct write; thin film 3D-nanoprinting; Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition; nanomagnetism; FEBID; nanowire; nanofabrication; direct write; thin film
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Sanz-Hernández, D.; Hamans, R.F.; Osterrieth, J.; Liao, J.-W.; Skoric, L.; Fowlkes, J.D.; Rack, P.D.; Lippert, A.; Lee, S.F.; Lavrijsen, R.; Fernández-Pacheco, A. Fabrication of Scaffold-Based 3D Magnetic Nanowires for Domain Wall Applications. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 483.

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