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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(11), 942;

Liquid-Phase Exfoliation of Graphene: An Overview on Exfoliation Media, Techniques, and Challenges

1,2, 1,3,*, 4, 2,* and 2
School of Architecture, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
Key Laboratory of Cold Region Urban and Rural Human Settlement Environment Science and Technology, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Harbin 150001, China
College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018


Graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanomaterial, has attracted worldwide attention owing to its fascinating properties. One of critical bottlenecks on some important classes of applications, such as printed electronics, conductive coatings, and composite fillers, is the lack of industrial-scale methods to produce high-quality graphene in the form of liquid suspensions, inks, or dispersions. Since 2008, when liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) of graphene via sonication was initiated, huge progress has been made in the past decade. This review highlights the latest progress on the successful preparation of graphene in various media, including organic solvents, ionic liquids, water/polymer or surfactant solutions, and some other green dispersants. The techniques of LPE, namely sonication, high-shear mixing, and microfluidization are reviewed subsequently. Moreover, several typical devices of high-shear mixing and exfoliation mechanisms are introduced in detail. Finally, we give perspectives on future research directions for the development of green exfoliation media and efficient techniques for producing high-quality graphene. This systematic exploratory study of LPE will potentially pave the way for the scalable production of graphene, which can be also applied to produce other 2D layered materials, such as BN, MoS2, WS2, etc. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; liquid-phase exfoliation; exfoliation media and techniques graphene; liquid-phase exfoliation; exfoliation media and techniques

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Xu, Y.; Cao, H.; Xue, Y.; Li, B.; Cai, W. Liquid-Phase Exfoliation of Graphene: An Overview on Exfoliation Media, Techniques, and Challenges. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 942.

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