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Article

Synthesis and Optimization of Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with l-Ascorbic Acid and Thymoquinone

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Cancer Research Laboratory, Institute of Biosciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(11), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110920
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 4 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
The combination of compounds with different classes (hydrophobic and hydrophilic characters) in single chitosan carrier is a challenge due to the hydrophilicity of chitosan. Utilization of l-ascorbic acid (LAA) and thymoquinone (TQ) compounds as effective antioxidants is marred by poor bioavailability and uptake. Nanoparticles (NPs) solved the problem by functioning as a carrier for them because they have high surface areas for more efficient delivery and uptake by cells. This research, therefore, synthesized chitosan NPs (CNPs) containing LAA and TQ, CNP-LAA-TQ via ionic gelation routes as the preparation is non-toxic. They were characterized using electron microscopy, zetasizer, UV–VIS spectrophotometry, and infrared spectroscopy. The optimum CNP-LAA-TQ size produced was 141.5 ± 7.8 nm, with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.207 ± 0.013. The encapsulation efficiency of CNP-LAA-TQ was 22.8 ± 3.2% for LAA and 35.6 ± 3.6% for TQ. Combined hydrophilic LAA and hydrophobic TQ proved that a myriad of highly efficacious compounds with poor systemic uptake could be encapsulated together in NP systems to increase their pharmaceutical efficiency, indirectly contributing to the advancement of medical and pharmaceutical sectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant; chitosan; hydrophobic-hydrophilic; ionic gelation; l-ascorbic acid; nanoparticles; thymoquinone antioxidant; chitosan; hydrophobic-hydrophilic; ionic gelation; l-ascorbic acid; nanoparticles; thymoquinone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Othman, N.; Masarudin, M.J.; Kuen, C.Y.; Dasuan, N.A.; Abdullah, L.C.; Md. Jamil, S.N.A. Synthesis and Optimization of Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with l-Ascorbic Acid and Thymoquinone. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 920. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110920

AMA Style

Othman N, Masarudin MJ, Kuen CY, Dasuan NA, Abdullah LC, Md. Jamil SNA. Synthesis and Optimization of Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with l-Ascorbic Acid and Thymoquinone. Nanomaterials. 2018; 8(11):920. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110920

Chicago/Turabian Style

Othman, Nurhanisah, Mas J. Masarudin, Cha Y. Kuen, Nurul A. Dasuan, Luqman C. Abdullah, and Siti N.A. Md. Jamil 2018. "Synthesis and Optimization of Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with l-Ascorbic Acid and Thymoquinone" Nanomaterials 8, no. 11: 920. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110920

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