Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2
NPs) are widely used in sunscreens, cosmetics and body implants, and this raises toxicity concerns. Although a large number of reports claim that they are safe to use, others claim that they induce reactive oxygen species formation and can be carcinogenic. In this study, the origins of toxic response to TiO2
NPs were investigated by using Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) which provides multidimensional information on the cellular dynamics at single cell level without any requirement for cell fixation. Three cell lines of vein (HUVEC), lung carcinoma (A549) and skin (L929) origin were tested for their toxic response upon exposure to 20, 40, 80 and 160 µg/mL anatase-TiO2
NPs for 24 h. It was demonstrated that the level of toxic response is both cell line and dose-dependent. L929 fibroblasts were the most resistant cell line to oxidative stress whereas in HUVEC and A549, cell lines collagen and lipid deformation were observed, respectively.
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