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Article

Comparison of Anionic, Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants as Dispersing Agents for Graphene Based on the Fluorescence of Riboflavin

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Biology, Environmental Sciences and Chemistry, Alcalá University, Alcalá de Henares, 28871 Madrid, Spain
2
Institute of Chemistry Research “Andrés M. del Río” (IQAR), University of Alcalá, Ctra, Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33.6, Alcalá de Henares, 28871 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(11), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7110403
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Fluorescence quenching is a valuable tool to gain insight about dynamic changes of fluorophores in complex systems. Graphene (G), a single-layered 2D nanomaterial with unique properties, was dispersed in surfactant aqueous solutions of different nature: non-ionic polyoxyethylene-23-lauryl ether (Brij L23), anionic sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), and cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB). The influence of the surfactant type, chain length and concentration, G total concentration and G/surfactant weight ratio on the fluorescence intensity of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) was investigated. The quality of the different G dispersions was assessed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM). A quenching phenomenon of the fluorescence of riboflavin was found for G dispersions in all the surfactants, which generally becomes stronger with increasing G/surfactant weight ratio. For dispersions in the ionic surfactants, the quenching is more pronounced as the surfactant concentration raises, whilst the non-ionic one remains merely unchanged for the different G/Brij L23 weight ratios. More importantly, results indicate that DTAB solutions are the optimum media for dispersing G sheets, leading to an up to 16-fold drop in the fluorescence intensity. Understanding the mechanism in fluorescence quenching of G dispersions in surfactants could be useful for several optical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; surfactants; riboflavin; fluorescence; sodium docecylsulphate; polyoxiethylen-23-lauryl ether; docecylammonium bromide; hexadecyltrimmethylammonium bromide; quenching graphene; surfactants; riboflavin; fluorescence; sodium docecylsulphate; polyoxiethylen-23-lauryl ether; docecylammonium bromide; hexadecyltrimmethylammonium bromide; quenching
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mateos, R.; Vera, S.; Valiente, M.; Díez-Pascual, A.M.; San Andrés, M.P. Comparison of Anionic, Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants as Dispersing Agents for Graphene Based on the Fluorescence of Riboflavin. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 403. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7110403

AMA Style

Mateos R, Vera S, Valiente M, Díez-Pascual AM, San Andrés MP. Comparison of Anionic, Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants as Dispersing Agents for Graphene Based on the Fluorescence of Riboflavin. Nanomaterials. 2017; 7(11):403. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7110403

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mateos, Rocío, Soledad Vera, Mercedes Valiente, Ana M. Díez-Pascual, and María P. San Andrés. 2017. "Comparison of Anionic, Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants as Dispersing Agents for Graphene Based on the Fluorescence of Riboflavin" Nanomaterials 7, no. 11: 403. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7110403

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