Next Article in Journal
Anisotropic Silver Nanomaterials by Photochemical Reactions: Synthesis and Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanobelts Predicted by Thermally-Assisted-Occupation DFT
Article

Stable Thermally-Modulated Nanodroplet Ultrasound Contrast Agents

1
Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
3
Center for Cancer Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Barge
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2225; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092225
Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 22 August 2021 / Accepted: 25 August 2021 / Published: 29 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanostructures for Biosensors)
Liquid perfluorocarbon-based nanodroplets are stable enough to be used in extravascular imaging, but provide limited contrast enhancement due to their small size, incompressible core, and small acoustic impedance mismatch with biological fluids. Here we show a novel approach to overcoming this limitation by using a heating–cooling cycle, which we will refer to as thermal modulation (TM), to induce echogenicity of otherwise stable but poorly echogenic nanodroplets without triggering a transient phase shift. We apply thermal modulation to high-boiling point tetradecafluorohexane (TDFH) nanodroplets stabilized with a bovine serum albumin (BSA) shell. BSA-TDFH nanodroplets with an average diameter under 300 nanometers showed an 11.9 ± 5.4 mean fold increase in echogenicity on the B-mode and a 13.9 ± 6.9 increase on the nonlinear contrast (NLC) mode after thermal modulation. Once activated, the particles maintained their enhanced echogenicity (p < 0.001) for at least 13 h while retaining their nanoscale size. Our data indicate that thermally modulated nanodroplets can potentially serve as theranostic agents or sensors for various applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasound; contrast agent; nanodroplet; perfluorocarbon; nanotechnology; biosensor; phase-shift; nanoemulsion; thermally-responsive ultrasound; contrast agent; nanodroplet; perfluorocarbon; nanotechnology; biosensor; phase-shift; nanoemulsion; thermally-responsive
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Vasiukhina, A.; Eshraghi, J.; Ahmadzadegan, A.; Goergen, C.J.; Vlachos, P.P.; Solorio, L. Stable Thermally-Modulated Nanodroplet Ultrasound Contrast Agents. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 2225. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092225

AMA Style

Vasiukhina A, Eshraghi J, Ahmadzadegan A, Goergen CJ, Vlachos PP, Solorio L. Stable Thermally-Modulated Nanodroplet Ultrasound Contrast Agents. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(9):2225. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092225

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vasiukhina, Anastasiia, Javad Eshraghi, Adib Ahmadzadegan, Craig J. Goergen, Pavlos P. Vlachos, and Luis Solorio. 2021. "Stable Thermally-Modulated Nanodroplet Ultrasound Contrast Agents" Nanomaterials 11, no. 9: 2225. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092225

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop