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Article

Carbon Quantum Dots Conjugated Rhodium Nanoparticles as Hybrid Multimodal Contrast Agents

1
Department of Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Center of Biosensors and Materials, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Arts, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu 37150, Turkey
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescun and Oana Gherasim
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2165; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092165
Received: 31 July 2021 / Revised: 18 August 2021 / Accepted: 21 August 2021 / Published: 24 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Applications)
Nanoparticle (NP)-based contrast agents enabling different imaging modalities are sought for non-invasive bio-diagnostics. A hybrid material, combining optical and X-ray fluorescence is presented as a bioimaging contrast agent. Core NPs based on metallic rhodium (Rh) have been demonstrated to be potential X-ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography (XFCT) contrast agents. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal method is used for NP synthesis, yielding large-scale NPs within a significantly short reaction time. Rh NP synthesis is performed by using a custom designed sugar ligand (LODAN), constituting a strong reducing agent in aqueous solution, which yields NPs with primary amines as surface functional groups. The amino groups on Rh NPs are used to directly conjugate excitation-independent nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs), which are synthesized through citrate pyrolysis in ammonia solution. CQDs provided the Rh NPs with optical fluorescence properties and improved their biocompatibility, as demonstrated in vitro by Real-Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) on a macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). The multimodal characteristics of the hybrid NPs are confirmed with confocal microscopy, and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) phantom experiments. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray fluorescence; carbon quantum dots; contrast agents; dual-mode imaging; nanomedicine; hybrid nanostructure; bio-imaging X-ray fluorescence; carbon quantum dots; contrast agents; dual-mode imaging; nanomedicine; hybrid nanostructure; bio-imaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saladino, G.M.; Kilic, N.I.; Brodin, B.; Hamawandi, B.; Yazgan, I.; Hertz, H.M.; Toprak, M.S. Carbon Quantum Dots Conjugated Rhodium Nanoparticles as Hybrid Multimodal Contrast Agents. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 2165. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092165

AMA Style

Saladino GM, Kilic NI, Brodin B, Hamawandi B, Yazgan I, Hertz HM, Toprak MS. Carbon Quantum Dots Conjugated Rhodium Nanoparticles as Hybrid Multimodal Contrast Agents. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(9):2165. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092165

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saladino, Giovanni M., Nuzhet I. Kilic, Bertha Brodin, Bejan Hamawandi, Idris Yazgan, Hans M. Hertz, and Muhammet S. Toprak. 2021. "Carbon Quantum Dots Conjugated Rhodium Nanoparticles as Hybrid Multimodal Contrast Agents" Nanomaterials 11, no. 9: 2165. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092165

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