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Article

The Balance between Energy, Environmental Security, and Technical Performance: The Regulatory Challenge of Nanofluids

1
Centro de Química Estrutural, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal
2
IAPMEI—Agência para a Competitividade e Inovação, Direção de Proximidade Regional e Licenciamento, Campus do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisbon, Portugal
3
Department of Technology, University of Applied Sciences, UCLL, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Simona Barison, Filippo Agresti, Laura Fedele, David Cabaleiro and Abdelhamid Elaissari
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081871
Received: 5 June 2021 / Revised: 28 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 July 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloids and Nanofluids for Energy Management)
Nowadays, numerous studies on nanomaterials (NMs) and Nanofluids (NFs) are account a plethora of applications. With the scientific society’s common goal of fulfilling the target of sustainable development proposed by the UN by 2030, it is necessary to combine efforts based on the scientific and technological knowledge already acquired, to apply these new systems with safety. There are thousands of publications that examine the use of NFs, their benefits and drawbacks, properties, behaviors, etc., but very little is known about the safety of some of these systems at a laboratory and industrial scale. What is the correct form of manipulating, storing, or even destroying them? What is their life cycle, and are they likely to be reused? Depending on the nanoparticles, the characteristics of the base fluid (water, propylene glycol, or even an ionic liquid) and the addition or not of additives/surfactants, the safety issue becomes complex. In this study, general data regarding the safety of NF (synthetic and natural) are discussed, for a necessary reflection leading to the elaboration of a methodology looking at the near future, intended to be sustainable at the level of existing resources, health, and environmental protection, paving the way for safer industrial and medical applications. A discussion on the efficient use of nanofluids with melanin (natural NM) and TiO2 in a pilot heat collector for domestic solar energy applications illustrates this methodology, showing that technical advantages can be restricted by their environment and safety/security implications. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanofluids; IoNanofluids; nanomaterials; colloids; safety; security; EU regulation; heat collector efficiency nanofluids; IoNanofluids; nanomaterials; colloids; safety; security; EU regulation; heat collector efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lourenço, M.J.; Alexandre, J.; Huisman, C.; Paredes, X.; Nieto de Castro, C. The Balance between Energy, Environmental Security, and Technical Performance: The Regulatory Challenge of Nanofluids. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1871. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081871

AMA Style

Lourenço MJ, Alexandre J, Huisman C, Paredes X, Nieto de Castro C. The Balance between Energy, Environmental Security, and Technical Performance: The Regulatory Challenge of Nanofluids. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(8):1871. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081871

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lourenço, Maria J., João Alexandre, Charlotte Huisman, Xavier Paredes, and Carlos Nieto de Castro. 2021. "The Balance between Energy, Environmental Security, and Technical Performance: The Regulatory Challenge of Nanofluids" Nanomaterials 11, no. 8: 1871. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11081871

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