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Use of Protamine in Nanopharmaceuticals—A Review

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Universitätsplatz 1, 8010 Graz, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors are contributed equally.
Academic Editors: Ruth Prassl, Angelina Angelova and Horacio Cabral
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1508;
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 7 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomedicine in Drug Delivery)
Macromolecular biomolecules are currently dethroning classical small molecule therapeutics because of their improved targeting and delivery properties. Protamine-a small polycationic peptide-represents a promising candidate. In nature, it binds and protects DNA against degradation during spermatogenesis due to electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged DNA-phosphate backbone and the positively charged protamine. Researchers are mimicking this technique to develop innovative nanopharmaceutical drug delivery systems, incorporating protamine as a carrier for biologically active components such as DNA or RNA. The first part of this review highlights ongoing investigations in the field of protamine-associated nanotechnology, discussing the self-assembling manufacturing process and nanoparticle engineering. Immune-modulating properties of protamine are those that lead to the second key part, which is protamine in novel vaccine technologies. Protamine-based RNA delivery systems in vaccines (some belong to the new class of mRNA-vaccines) against infectious disease and their use in cancer treatment are reviewed, and we provide an update on the current state of latest developments with protamine as pharmaceutical excipient for vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: protamine; proticles; nanoparticles; novel vaccine technologies protamine; proticles; nanoparticles; novel vaccine technologies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruseska, I.; Fresacher, K.; Petschacher, C.; Zimmer, A. Use of Protamine in Nanopharmaceuticals—A Review. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1508.

AMA Style

Ruseska I, Fresacher K, Petschacher C, Zimmer A. Use of Protamine in Nanopharmaceuticals—A Review. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(6):1508.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruseska, Ivana, Katja Fresacher, Christina Petschacher, and Andreas Zimmer. 2021. "Use of Protamine in Nanopharmaceuticals—A Review" Nanomaterials 11, no. 6: 1508.

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