Next Article in Journal
Remotely Self-Healable, Shapeable and pH-Sensitive Dual Cross-Linked Polysaccharide Hydrogels with Fast Response to Magnetic Field
Next Article in Special Issue
Gene-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy by Dendrimer-Like Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles against Tumor Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Biogenic ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized Using a Novel Plant Extract: Application to Enhance Physiological and Biochemical Traits in Maize
Previous Article in Special Issue
Specific Absorption Rate Dependency on the Co2+ Distribution and Magnetic Properties in CoxMn1-xFe2O4 Nanoparticles
Article

Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Biosensor Using Folic Acid-Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide for the Detection of Cancer Biomarker

1
Nanotechnology Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, 43500 Semenyih, Malaysia
2
School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia
3
School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, New Energy Science & Engineering, Xiamen University Malaysia, 43900 Sepang, Malaysia
4
Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Brunei, Bandar Seri Begawan BE1410, Brunei
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: María Vallet-Regí and Miguel Gisbert-Garzarán
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051272
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 4 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Bio-Medical Applications)
The detection of cancer biomarkers in the early stages could prevent cancer-related deaths significantly. Nanomaterials combined with biomolecules are extensively used in drug delivery, imaging, and sensing applications by targeting the overexpressed cancer proteins such as folate receptors (FRs) to control the disease by providing earlier treatments. In this investigation, biocompatible reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets combined with folic acid (FA)-a vitamin with high bioaffinity to FRs-is utilized to develop an electrochemical sensor for cancer detection. To mimic the cancer cell environment, FR-β protein is used to evaluate the response of the rGO-FA sensor. The formation of the rGO-FA nanocomposite was confirmed through various characterization techniques. A glassy carbon (GC) electrode was then modified with the obtained rGO-FA and analyzed via differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) for its specific detection towards FRs. Using the DPV technique, the rGO-FA-modified electrode exhibited a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.69 pM, determined in a linear concentration range from 6 to 100 pM. This excellent electrochemical performance towards FRs detection could provide a significant contribution towards future cancer diagnosis. Moreover, the rGO-FA sensing platform also showed excellent specificity and reliability when tested against similar interfering biomolecules. This rGO-FA sensor offers a great promise to the future medical industry through its highly sensitive detection towards FRs in a fast, reliable, and economical way. View Full-Text
Keywords: folic acid; folate receptor; folate targeted; electrochemical sensor; cancer biomarker; rGO-FA; differential pulse voltammetry; biosensor folic acid; folate receptor; folate targeted; electrochemical sensor; cancer biomarker; rGO-FA; differential pulse voltammetry; biosensor
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Geetha Bai, R.; Muthoosamy, K.; Tuvikene, R.; Nay Ming, H.; Manickam, S. Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Biosensor Using Folic Acid-Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide for the Detection of Cancer Biomarker. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1272. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051272

AMA Style

Geetha Bai R, Muthoosamy K, Tuvikene R, Nay Ming H, Manickam S. Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Biosensor Using Folic Acid-Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide for the Detection of Cancer Biomarker. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(5):1272. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051272

Chicago/Turabian Style

Geetha Bai, Renu, Kasturi Muthoosamy, Rando Tuvikene, Huang Nay Ming, and Sivakumar Manickam. 2021. "Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Biosensor Using Folic Acid-Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide for the Detection of Cancer Biomarker" Nanomaterials 11, no. 5: 1272. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051272

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop