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Article

NIR-to-NIR Imaging: Extended Excitation Up to 2.2 μm Using Harmonic Nanoparticles with a Tunable hIGh EneRgy (TIGER) Widefield Microscope

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Department of Physics, Osnabrueck University, 49076 Osnabrueck, Germany
2
Research Center for Cellular Nanoanalytics, Osnabrueck (CellNanOs), Osnabrueck University, 49076 Osnabrueck, Germany
3
Department of Biology/Chemistry, Osnabrueck University, 49076 Osnabrueck, Germany
4
Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yannick Mugnier and Geraldine Dantelle
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123193
Received: 29 October 2021 / Revised: 19 November 2021 / Accepted: 22 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
Near-infrared (NIR) marker-based imaging is of growing importance for deep tissue imaging and is based on a considerable reduction of optical losses at large wavelengths. We aim to extend the range of NIR excitation wavelengths particularly to values beyond 1.6 μm in order to profit from the low loss biological windows NIR-III and NIR-IV. We address this task by studying NIR-excitation to NIR-emission conversion and imaging in the range of 1200 up to 2400 nm at the example of harmonic Mg-doped lithium niobate nanoparticles (i) using a nonlinear diffuse femtosecond-pulse reflectometer and (ii) a Tunable hIGh EneRgy (TIGER) widefield microscope. We successfully demonstrate the existence of appropriate excitation/emission configurations in this spectral region taking harmonic generation into account. Moreover, NIR-imaging using the most striking configurations NIR-III to NIR-I, based on second harmonic generation (SHG), and NIR-IV to NIR-I, based on third harmonic generation (THG), is demonstrated with excitation wavelengths from 1.6–1.8 μm and from 2.1–2.2 μm, respectively. The advantages of the approach and the potential to additionally extend the emission range up to 2400 nm, making use of sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG), are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological windows; NIR-III; NIR-IV; NIR imaging; nonlinear microscopy; nonlinear photonics; deep tissue imaging harmonic nanoparticles; second harmonic generation biological windows; NIR-III; NIR-IV; NIR imaging; nonlinear microscopy; nonlinear photonics; deep tissue imaging harmonic nanoparticles; second harmonic generation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vittadello, L.; Klenen, J.; Koempe, K.; Kocsor, L.; Szaller, Z.; Imlau, M. NIR-to-NIR Imaging: Extended Excitation Up to 2.2 μm Using Harmonic Nanoparticles with a Tunable hIGh EneRgy (TIGER) Widefield Microscope. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 3193. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123193

AMA Style

Vittadello L, Klenen J, Koempe K, Kocsor L, Szaller Z, Imlau M. NIR-to-NIR Imaging: Extended Excitation Up to 2.2 μm Using Harmonic Nanoparticles with a Tunable hIGh EneRgy (TIGER) Widefield Microscope. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(12):3193. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123193

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vittadello, Laura, Jan Klenen, Karsten Koempe, Laura Kocsor, Zsuzsanna Szaller, and Mirco Imlau. 2021. "NIR-to-NIR Imaging: Extended Excitation Up to 2.2 μm Using Harmonic Nanoparticles with a Tunable hIGh EneRgy (TIGER) Widefield Microscope" Nanomaterials 11, no. 12: 3193. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123193

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