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Review

Aquatic Environment Exposure and Toxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials Released from Nano-Enabled Products: Current Status and Data Needs

1
Centre for Environmental Management, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9031, South Africa
2
Water Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
3
Centre for Mineral Biogeochemistry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9031, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ilaria Corsi and Julian Blasco
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 2868; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112868
Received: 27 September 2021 / Revised: 21 October 2021 / Accepted: 23 October 2021 / Published: 27 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials)
Rapid commercialisation of nano-enabled products (NEPs) elevates the potential environmental release of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) along the product life cycle. The current review examined the state of the art literature on aquatic environment exposure and ecotoxicity of product released (PR) engineered nanomaterials (PR–ENMs). Additionally, the data obtained were applied to estimate the risk posed by PR–ENMs to various trophic levels of aquatic biota as a means of identifying priority NEPs cases that may require attention with regards to examining environmental implications. Overall, the PR–ENMs are predominantly associated with the matrix of the respective NEPs, a factor that often hinders proper isolation of nano-driven toxicity effects. Nevertheless, some studies have attributed the toxicity basis of observed adverse effects to a combination of the released ions, ENMs and other components of NEPs. Notwithstanding the limitation of current ecotoxicology data limitations, the risk estimated herein points to an elevated risk towards fish arising from fabrics’ PR–nAg, and the considerable potential effects from sunscreens’ PR–nZnO and PR–nTiO2 to algae, echinoderms, and crustaceans (PR–nZnO), whereas PR–nTiO2 poses no significant risk to echinoderms. Considering that the current data limitations will not be overcome immediately, we recommend the careful application of similar risk estimation to isolate/prioritise cases of NEPs for detailed characterisation of ENMs’ release and effects in aquatic environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: product released nanomaterials; nano-enabled product; risk assessment; ecotoxicology of PR–ENMs product released nanomaterials; nano-enabled product; risk assessment; ecotoxicology of PR–ENMs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moloi, M.S.; Lehutso, R.F.; Erasmus, M.; Oberholster, P.J.; Thwala, M. Aquatic Environment Exposure and Toxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials Released from Nano-Enabled Products: Current Status and Data Needs. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 2868. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112868

AMA Style

Moloi MS, Lehutso RF, Erasmus M, Oberholster PJ, Thwala M. Aquatic Environment Exposure and Toxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials Released from Nano-Enabled Products: Current Status and Data Needs. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(11):2868. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112868

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moloi, Mbuyiselwa S., Raisibe F. Lehutso, Mariana Erasmus, Paul J. Oberholster, and Melusi Thwala. 2021. "Aquatic Environment Exposure and Toxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials Released from Nano-Enabled Products: Current Status and Data Needs" Nanomaterials 11, no. 11: 2868. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112868

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