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Solvent-Free Mechanochemical Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by High-Energy Ball Milling of ε-Zn(OH)2 Crystals

Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel
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Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010238
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 13 January 2021 / Published: 18 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures)
A detailed investigation is presented for the solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from ε-Zn(OH)2 crystals by high-energy ball milling. Only a few works have ever explored the dry synthetic route from ε-Zn(OH)2 to ZnO. The milling process of ε-Zn(OH)2 was done in ambient conditions with a 1:100 powder/ball mass ratio, and it produced uniform ZnO nanoparticles with sizes of 10–30 nm, based on the milling duration. The process was carefully monitored and the effect of the milling duration on the powder composition, nanoparticle size and strain, optical properties, aggregate size, and material activity was examined using XRD, TEM, DLS, UV-Vis, and FTIR. The mechanism for the transformation of ε-Zn(OH)2 to ZnO was studied by TGA and XPS analysis. The study gave proof for a reaction mechanism starting with a phase transition of crystalline ε-Zn(OH)2 to amorphous Zn(OH)2, followed by decomposition to ZnO and water. To the best of our knowledge, this mechanochemical approach for synthesizing ZnO from ε-Zn(OH)2 is completely novel. ε-Zn(OH)2 crystals are very easy to obtain, and the milling process is done in ambient conditions; therefore, this work provides a simple, cheap, and solvent-free way to produce ZnO nanoparticles in dry conditions. We believe that this study could help to shed some light on the solvent-free transition from ε-Zn(OH)2 to ZnO and that it could offer a new synthetic route for synthesizing ZnO nanoparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc oxide; ball milling; inorganic chemistry; nanomaterials zinc oxide; ball milling; inorganic chemistry; nanomaterials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Otis, G.; Ejgenberg, M.; Mastai, Y. Solvent-Free Mechanochemical Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by High-Energy Ball Milling of ε-Zn(OH)2 Crystals. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 238. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010238

AMA Style

Otis G, Ejgenberg M, Mastai Y. Solvent-Free Mechanochemical Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by High-Energy Ball Milling of ε-Zn(OH)2 Crystals. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(1):238. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010238

Chicago/Turabian Style

Otis, Gil, Michal Ejgenberg, and Yitzhak Mastai. 2021. "Solvent-Free Mechanochemical Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles by High-Energy Ball Milling of ε-Zn(OH)2 Crystals" Nanomaterials 11, no. 1: 238. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010238

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