Next Article in Journal
Enhancing the Performance of Aqueous Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Photovoltaic Materials by Mn2+ Substitution
Previous Article in Journal
Multiple Energy Transfer in Luminescence-Tunable Single-Phased Phosphor NaGdTiO4: Tm3+, Dy3+, Sm3+
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 2D Nanostructured Au/NiFe System
Open AccessArticle

Early-Stage Growth Mechanism and Synthesis Conditions-Dependent Morphology of Nanocrystalline Bi Films Electrodeposited from Perchlorate Electrolyte

1
Laboratory of Magnetic Films Physics, Cryogenic Research Department, Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 220072 Minsk, Belarus
2
Laboratory of Single Crystal Growth, South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
3
Department of Micro- and Nanoelectronics, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, 220013 Minsk, Belarus
4
Engineering Profile Laboratory, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Nur-Sultan 010008, Kazakhstan
5
Laboratory of Solid State Physics, The Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty 050032, Kazakhstan
6
Department of Intelligent Information Technologies, Ural Federal University Named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 620075 Yekaterinburg, Russia
7
Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Science and Engineering Division, 4700 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
8
Department of Resource and Environment, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China
9
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 141701 Dolgoprudny, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061245
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 11 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 27 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bimetallic Nanoparticles)
Bi nanocrystalline films were formed from perchlorate electrolyte (PE) on Cu substrate via electrochemical deposition with different duration and current densities. The microstructural, morphological properties, and elemental composition were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The optimal range of current densities for Bi electrodeposition in PE using polarization measurements was demonstrated. For the first time, it was shown and explained why, with a deposition duration of 1 s, co-deposition of Pb and Bi occurs. The correlation between synthesis conditions and chemical composition and microstructure for Bi films was discussed. The analysis of the microstructure evolution revealed the changing mechanism of the films’ growth from pillar-like (for Pb-rich phase) to layered granular form (for Bi) with deposition duration rising. This abnormal behavior is explained by the appearance of a strong Bi growth texture and coalescence effects. The investigations of porosity showed that Bi films have a closely-packed microstructure. The main stages and the growth mechanism of Bi films in the galvanostatic regime in PE with a deposition duration of 1–30 s are proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: bismuth; lead; films; electrochemical deposition; co-deposition; growth mechanism; morphology; perchlorate electrolyte bismuth; lead; films; electrochemical deposition; co-deposition; growth mechanism; morphology; perchlorate electrolyte
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Tishkevich, D.; Grabchikov, S.; Zubar, T.; Vasin, D.; Trukhanov, S.; Vorobjova, A.; Yakimchuk, D.; Kozlovskiy, A.; Zdorovets, M.; Giniyatova, S.; Shimanovich, D.; Lyakhov, D.; Michels, D.; Dong, M.; Gudkova, S.; Trukhanov, A. Early-Stage Growth Mechanism and Synthesis Conditions-Dependent Morphology of Nanocrystalline Bi Films Electrodeposited from Perchlorate Electrolyte. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1245.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop