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Article

Thermal and Physical Characterization of PEG Phase Change Materials Enhanced by Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

1
Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
2
Laboratoire de Génie Civil et Génie Mécanique, LGCGM, Université Rennes, 35000 Rennes, France
3
Department of Experimental Physics, Rzeszow University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061168
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloids and Nanofluids for Energy Management)
This paper presents the preparation and thermal/physical characterization of phase change materials (PCMs) based on poly(ethylene glycol) 400 g·mol−1 and nano-enhanced by either carbon black (CB), a raw graphite/diamond nanomixture (G/D-r), a purified graphite/diamond nanomixture (G/D-p) or nano-Diamond nanopowders with purity grades of 87% or 97% (nD87 and nD97, respectively). Differential scanning calorimetry and oscillatory rheology experiments were used to provide an insight into the thermal and mechanical changes taking place during solid-liquid phase transitions of the carbon-based suspensions. PEG400-based samples loaded with 1.0 wt.% of raw graphite/diamond nanomixture (G/D-r) exhibited the lowest sub-cooling effect (with a reduction of ~2 K regarding neat PEG400). The influences that the type of carbon-based nanoadditive and nanoparticle loading (0.50 and 1.0 wt.%) have on dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, density and surface tension were also investigated in the temperature range from 288 to 318 K. Non-linear rheological experiments showed that all dispersions exhibited a non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic behavior, which was more noticeable in the case of carbon black nanofluids at low shear rates. The highest enhancements in thermal conductivity were observed for graphite/diamond nanomixtures (3.3–3.6%), while nano-diamond suspensions showed the largest modifications in density (0.64–0.66%). Reductions in surface tension were measured for the two nano-diamond nanopowders (nD87 and nD97), while slight increases (within experimental uncertainties) were observed for dispersions prepared using the other three carbon-based nanopowders. Finally, a good agreement was observed between the experimental surface tension measurements performed using a Du Noüy ring tensiometer and a drop-shape analyzer. View Full-Text
Keywords: NePCM; PEG400; carbon black; graphite; nano-diamond; solid-liquid phase change; thermal conductivity; surface tension; dynamic viscosity; density NePCM; PEG400; carbon black; graphite; nano-diamond; solid-liquid phase change; thermal conductivity; surface tension; dynamic viscosity; density
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cabaleiro, D.; Hamze, S.; Fal, J.; Marcos, M.A.; Estellé, P.; Żyła, G. Thermal and Physical Characterization of PEG Phase Change Materials Enhanced by Carbon-Based Nanoparticles. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1168. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061168

AMA Style

Cabaleiro D, Hamze S, Fal J, Marcos MA, Estellé P, Żyła G. Thermal and Physical Characterization of PEG Phase Change Materials Enhanced by Carbon-Based Nanoparticles. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(6):1168. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061168

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cabaleiro, David, Samah Hamze, Jacek Fal, Marco A. Marcos, Patrice Estellé, and Gaweł Żyła. 2020. "Thermal and Physical Characterization of PEG Phase Change Materials Enhanced by Carbon-Based Nanoparticles" Nanomaterials 10, no. 6: 1168. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061168

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