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Open AccessArticle

Lead-Free BNT–BT0.08/CoFe2O4 Core–Shell Nanostructures with Potential Multifunctional Applications

1
National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 405A, 077125 Magurele, Romania
2
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
4
Research Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technologies, Carthage University, BP.1003, Hammam-Lif, Ben Arous 2050, Tunisia
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Faculty of Mathematical, Physical and Natural Sciences of Tunis, University of Tunis Elmanar, Belvedere, Tunis 1002, Tunisia
6
National Research Council of Italy–Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (CNR–ISTEC), Via Granarolo 64, I–48018 Faenza, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040672
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 24 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 3 April 2020
Herein we report on novel multiferroic core–shell nanostructures of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4)–bismuth, sodium titanate doped with barium titanate (BNT–BT0.08), prepared by a two–step wet chemical procedure, using the sol–gel technique. The fraction of CoFe2O4 was varied from 1:0.5 to 1:1.5 = BNT–BT0.08/CoFe2O4 (molar ratio). X–ray diffraction confirmed the presence of both the spinel CoFe2O4 and the perovskite Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 phases. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the diameter of the core–shell nanoparticles was between 15 and 40 nm. Transmission electron microscopy data showed two–phase composite nanostructures consisting of a BNT–BT0.08 core surrounded by a CoFe2O4 shell with an average thickness of 4–7 nm. Cole-Cole plots reveal the presence of grains and grain boundary effects in the BNT–BT0.08/CoFe2O4 composite. Moreover, the values of the dc conductivity were found to increase with the amount of CoFe2O4 semiconductive phase. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Mössbauer measurements have shown no change in the valence of the Fe3+, Co2+, Bi3+ and Ti4+ cations. This study provides a detailed insight into the magnetoelectric coupling of the multiferroic BNT–BT0.08/CoFe2O4 core–shell composite potentially suitable for magnetoelectric applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxide materials; sol-gel processes; piezoelectric/ferromagnetic composites; composite core–shell; dielectric properties; magnetic properties; magnetoelectric properties oxide materials; sol-gel processes; piezoelectric/ferromagnetic composites; composite core–shell; dielectric properties; magnetic properties; magnetoelectric properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cernea, M.; Radu, R.; Amorín, H.; Greculeasa, S.G.; Vasile, B.S.; Surdu, V.A.; Ganea, P.; Trusca, R.; Hattab, M.; Galassi, C. Lead-Free BNT–BT0.08/CoFe2O4 Core–Shell Nanostructures with Potential Multifunctional Applications. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 672.

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