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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Nano-Montmorillonite on Osteoblast Differentiation, Mineral Density, and Osteoclast Differentiation in Bone Formation

1
Department of Food and Nutrition, KC University, Seoul 07661, Korea
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04107, Korea
3
Advanced Geo-materials R&D Department, Pohang Branch, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Pohang 37559, Korea
4
Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea
5
Department of Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Korea
6
Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul National University of Science & Technology, Seoul 01811, Korea
7
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04107l, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020230
Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 19 January 2020 / Accepted: 26 January 2020 / Published: 28 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biology and Medicines)
Calcium-type montmorillonite, a phyllosilicate mineral, has diverse health benefits when introduced into the gastrointestinal tract or applied to the skin. However, the predominant use of this layered material has thus far been in traditional industries, despite its potential application in the pharmaceutical industry. We investigated the effects and mechanism of nano-montmorillonite (NM) on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation in vivo and in vitro. We examined the osteogenic effects of NM with high calcium content (3.66 wt%) on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization, bone microarchitecture, and expression level of osteoblast and osteoclast related genes in Ca-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Micro-computed tomography of OVX rats revealed that NM attenuated the low-Ca-associated changes in trabecular and cortical bone mineral density. It improved ALP activity and mineralization, as well as the expression of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation associated genes. NM also activated the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and type 1 collagen via phosphorylated small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1/5/8 signaling. Further, NM repressed the expression of receptor activator for cathepsin K, nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Therefore, NM inhibits osteoclastogenesis, stimulates osteoblastogenesis, and alleviates osteoporosis.
Keywords: nano-montmorillonite; bone formation; osteoblasts; osteoclasts; ovariectomy rats nano-montmorillonite; bone formation; osteoblasts; osteoclasts; ovariectomy rats
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Kim, G.-J.; Kim, D.; Lee, K.-J.; Kim, D.; Chung, K.-H.; Choi, J.W.; An, J.H. Effect of Nano-Montmorillonite on Osteoblast Differentiation, Mineral Density, and Osteoclast Differentiation in Bone Formation. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 230.

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