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Ecotoxicity Assessment of Graphene Oxide by Daphnia magna through a Multimarker Approach from the Molecular to the Physiological Level including Behavioral Changes

1
Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Group, Department of Applied Biotechnology and Food Science, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3., 1111 Budapest, Hungary
2
Surface Chemistry Group, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3., 1111 Budapest, Hungary
3
Soft Matters Group, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Műegyetem rkp. 3., 1111 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102048
Received: 11 September 2020 / Revised: 6 October 2020 / Accepted: 12 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Nanoscience and Nanotechnology)
The extensive use of engineered nanomaterials, such as graphene oxide (GO), is stimulating research about its potential environmental impacts on the aquatic ecosystem. This study is aimed to comprehensively assess the acute toxicity of a well-characterized GO suspension to Daphnia magna. Conventional ecotoxicological endpoints (lethality, immobilization) and more sensitive, sublethal endpoints (heartbeat rate, feeding activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) production were used. The possible normalization of the heartbeat rate and feeding activity in clean test medium was also investigated. The fate, time-dependent, and concentration-dependent aggregation behaviour of GO was followed by dynamic light scattering, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurement methods. The EC20 value for immobilization was 50 mg/L, while, for physiological and behavioural endpoints, it ranged from 8.1 mg/L (feeding activity) to 14.8 mg/L (immobilization). The most sensitive endpoint was the ROS production with EC20 = 4.78 mg/L. 24-h recovery experiments revealed that feeding activity was restored only up to a certain level at higher concentrations, indicating that the potential environmental health effects of GO cannot be neglected. Alterations of normal physiology (heart rate) and feeding activity may be associated with increased risk of predation and reproductive decline, highlighting that GO may have impacts on population and food web dynamics in aquatic ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: Daphnia magna; feeding activity; graphene oxide; heartbeat rate; nano-ecotoxicology; oxidative stress; recovery studies Daphnia magna; feeding activity; graphene oxide; heartbeat rate; nano-ecotoxicology; oxidative stress; recovery studies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fekete-Kertész, I.; László, K.; Terebesi, C.; Gyarmati, B.S.; Farah, S.; Márton, R.; Molnár, M. Ecotoxicity Assessment of Graphene Oxide by Daphnia magna through a Multimarker Approach from the Molecular to the Physiological Level including Behavioral Changes. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 2048.

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