Black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) have recently obtained great attention due to their high mobility and tunable bandgap features, which are beneficial for their potential application in photoelectronic devices. However, a precise synthesis of high-quality BPQDs is still a great challenge owing to the formation of an impurity phase when employing traditional methods. Herein, we demonstrate the scalable fabrication of BPQDs from mineralization-derived bulk black phosphorus (BP) single crystals by means of a microwave (MW)-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation method in ethanol. The primary results demonstrate that ethanol plays a crucial role in determining the final properties of BPQDs, such as their excellent tolerance to oxygen, good crystallinity, and uniform size. Furthermore, the mechanism behind the formation of BPQDs is proposed, revealing that a layer-by-layer disintegration process of bulk BP crystals under microwave-energy stimuli is responsible. This work may provide a novel path for the further development of BPQDs and corresponding devices.
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