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Visible Light Photodegradation of Formaldehyde over TiO2 Nanotubes Synthesized via Electrochemical Anodization of Titanium Foil

1
Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Perak 32610, Malaysia
2
Center for Sustainable Nanomaterials, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor 81310, Malaysia
3
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor 81310, Malaysia
4
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Perak 32610, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010128
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 3 January 2020 / Accepted: 5 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
In this study, a series of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) were synthesized employing electrochemical anodization of titanium foil in an ionic liquid solution containing a mixture of glycerol and choline chloride, acting as electrolyte. The as-synthesized TiO2 NTs were calcined at 350, 450, or 550 °C for a 2 h duration to investigate the influence of calcination temperature on NTs formation, morphology, surface properties, crystallinity, and subsequent photocatalytic activity for visible light photodegradation of gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO). Results showed that the calcination temperature has a significant effect on the structure and coverage of TiO2 NTs on the surface. Freshly synthesized TiO2 NTs showed better-ordered structure compared to calcined samples. There was significant pore rupture with increasing calcination temperature. The transformation from anatase to rutile phase appeared after calcination at 450 °C and the weight fraction of the rutile phase increased from 19% to 36% upon increasing the calcination temperature to 550 °C. The band gaps of the TiO2 NTs were in the range from 2.80 to 2.74 eV, shifting the active region of the materials to visible light. The presence of mixed anatase–rutile TiO2 phases in the sample calcined at 450 °C showed enhanced photoactivity, which was confirmed by the 21.56 mg∙L−1∙g−1 removal of gaseous formaldehyde under 120 min of visible light irradiation and displayed enhanced quantum yield, HCHO of 17%. View Full-Text
Keywords: TiO2 nanotubes; anodization; ionic liquid; glycerol; formaldehyde degradation TiO2 nanotubes; anodization; ionic liquid; glycerol; formaldehyde degradation
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Sahrin, N.T.; Nawaz, R.; Fai Kait, C.; Lee, S.L.; Wirzal, M.D.H. Visible Light Photodegradation of Formaldehyde over TiO2 Nanotubes Synthesized via Electrochemical Anodization of Titanium Foil. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 128.

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