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Superficial Characteristics of Titanium after Treatment of Chorreated Surface, Passive Acid, and Decontamination with Argon Plasma

Dental School, University of Sevilla, 41009 Seville, Spain
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J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9040071
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
(1) Background. Titanium is characterized by its biocompatibility, resistance to maximum stress, and fatigue and non-toxicity. The composition, surface structure, and roughness of titanium have a key and direct influence on the osseointegration processes when it is used in the form of dental implants. The objective of the present study is to characterize, at chemical, superficial, and biological levels, the result of the application of the sandblasted with large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) treatment consisting of coarse-grained and double-passivated acid blasting with subsequent decontamination with argon plasma on the surface of titanium implants type IV. (2) Methods. Four Oxtein® dental implants (Zaragoza, Spain) were investigated with the following coding: Code L63713T (titanium grade IV, 3.75 mm in diameter, and 13 mm in length). The surface of the implants was SLA type obtained from coarse-grained, double passivated acid, and decontaminated with argon plasma. The samples were in their sealed packages and were opened in our laboratory. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was used to characterize the chemical composition of the surface, and the scanning electronic microscope (SEM) technique was used to perform topographic surface evaluation. Cell cultures were also performed on both surfaces. (3) Results. The superficial chemical analysis of the studied samples presented the following components, approximately, expressed in atomic percentage: O: 39%; Ti: 18%; C: 39%; N: 2%; and Si: 1%. In the same way, the topographic analysis values were obtained in the evaluated roughness parameters: Ra: 1.5 μm ± 0.02%; Rq: 1.31 μm ± 0.33; Rz: 8.98 μm ± 0.73; Rp: 5.12 μm ± 0.48; Rv: 3.76 μm ± 0.51; and Rc: 4.92 μm ± 0.24. At a biological level, the expression of osteocalcin was higher (p < 0.05) on the micro-rough surface compared to that machined at 48 and 96 h of culture. (4) Conclusions. The data obtained in our study indicate that the total carbon content, the relative concentration of titanium, and the roughness of the treatment performed on the implants are in agreement with those found in the literature. Further, the roughness of the treatment performed on the implants throws a spongy, three-dimensional surface suitable for bone growth on it. The biological results found are compatible with the clinical use of the surface tested. View Full-Text
Keywords: Titanium; surface roughness; dental implant; surface composition; microtopography; scanning electronic microscope; cell culture; RT-PCR Titanium; surface roughness; dental implant; surface composition; microtopography; scanning electronic microscope; cell culture; RT-PCR
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Rizo-Gorrita, M.; Luna-Oliva, I.; Serrera-Figallo, M.-A.; Torres-Lagares, D. Superficial Characteristics of Titanium after Treatment of Chorreated Surface, Passive Acid, and Decontamination with Argon Plasma. J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9, 71.

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