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Strategies to Tune Electrospun Scaffold Porosity for Effective Cell Response in Tissue Engineering

Division of Tissue Culture, Department of Applied Biology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695012, Kerala, India
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J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10030030
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Materials for Regenerative Medicine)
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Abstract

Tissue engineering aims to develop artificial human tissues by culturing cells on a scaffold in the presence of biochemical cues. Properties of scaffold such as architecture and composition highly influence the overall cell response. Electrospinning has emerged as one of the most affordable, versatile, and successful approaches to develop nonwoven nano/microscale fibrous scaffolds whose structural features resemble that of the native extracellular matrix. However, dense packing of the fibers leads to small-sized pores which obstruct cell infiltration and therefore is a major limitation for their use in tissue engineering applications. To this end, a variety of approaches have been investigated to enhance the pore properties of the electrospun scaffolds. In this review, we collect state-of-the-art modification methods and summarize them into six classes as follows: approaches focused on optimization of packing density by (a) conventional setup, (b) sequential or co-electrospinning setups, (c) involving sacrificial elements, (d) using special collectors, (e) post-production processing, and (f) other specialized methods. Overall, this review covers historical as well as latest methodologies in the field and therefore acts as a quick reference for those interested in electrospinning matrices for tissue engineering and beyond. View Full-Text
Keywords: sacrificial fibers; salt leaching; gas foaming; electrospray; ultrasonication; liquid bath collector; anisotropic pores; air impedance; laser ablation; 3D printing sacrificial fibers; salt leaching; gas foaming; electrospray; ultrasonication; liquid bath collector; anisotropic pores; air impedance; laser ablation; 3D printing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ameer, J.M.; PR, A.K.; Kasoju, N. Strategies to Tune Electrospun Scaffold Porosity for Effective Cell Response in Tissue Engineering. J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10, 30.

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