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Computation 2018, 6(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation6030043

Application of Different Turbulence Models Simulating Wind Flow in Complex Terrain: A Case Study for the WindForS Test Site

1
Esslingen University of Applied Sciences, Faculty Building Services, Energy and Environment, Kanalstraße 33, D-73728 Esslingen, Germany
2
University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart Wind Energy (SWE) at the Institute of Aircraft Design, Allmandring 5b, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany
3
Eberhard Karls University, Center for Applied Geoscience (ZAG), Hölderlinstraße 12, D-72074 Tübingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Wind Engineering)
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Abstract

A model for the simulation of wind flow in complex terrain is presented based on the Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations. For the description of turbulence, the standard k-ε, the renormalization group (RNG) k-ε, and a Reynolds stress turbulence model are applied. Additional terms are implemented in the momentum equations to describe stratification of the Earth’s atmosphere and to account for the Coriolis forces driven by the Earth’s rotation, as well as for the drag force due to forested canopy. Furthermore, turbulence production and dissipation terms are added to the turbulence equations for the two-equation, as well as for the Reynolds stress models, in order to capture different types of land use. The approaches for the turbulence models are verified by means of a homogeneous canopy test case with flat terrain and constant forest height. The validation of the models is performed by investigating the WindForS wind test site. The simulation results are compared with five-hole probe velocity measurements using multipurpose airborne sensor carrier (MASC) systems (unmanned small research aircraft)—UAV at different locations for the main wind regime. Additionally, Reynolds stresses measured with sonic anemometers at a meteorological wind mast at different heights are compared with simulation results using the Reynolds stress turbulence model. View Full-Text
Keywords: wind simulation; complex terrain; canopy; Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS); second moment closure wind simulation; complex terrain; canopy; Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS); second moment closure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Knaus, H.; Hofsäß, M.; Rautenberg, A.; Bange, J. Application of Different Turbulence Models Simulating Wind Flow in Complex Terrain: A Case Study for the WindForS Test Site. Computation 2018, 6, 43.

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