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Information 2018, 9(8), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/info9080194

Quantization-Based Image Watermarking by Using a Normalization Scheme in the Wavelet Domain

1,2,* , 3
and
2
1
School of Information and Communication Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
2
School of Mathematics and Computer Science, ShangRao Normal University, Shangrao 334001, China
3
School of Physics and Electronic Information, ShangRao Normal University, Shangrao 334001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Information Processes)
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Abstract

To improve the invisibility and robustness of quantization-based image watermarking algorithms, we developed an improved quantization image watermarking method based on the wavelet transform and normalization strategy used in this study. In the process of watermark encoding, the sorting strategy of wavelet coefficients is used to calculate the quantization step size. Its robustness lies in the normalization-based watermark embedding and the control of its amount of modification on each wavelet coefficient by utilizing the proper quantization parameter in a high entropy image region. In watermark detection, the original unmarked image is not required, and the probability of false alarms and the probability of detection are discussed through experimental simulation. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed watermarking. Furthermore, the proposed method has stronger robustness than the alternative quantization-based watermarking algorithm. View Full-Text
Keywords: image watermarking; quantization index modulation; entropy; wavelet transform; normalization scheme image watermarking; quantization index modulation; entropy; wavelet transform; normalization scheme
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Liu, J.; Tu, Q.; Xu, X. Quantization-Based Image Watermarking by Using a Normalization Scheme in the Wavelet Domain. Information 2018, 9, 194.

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