X-rays emitted by the Sun can damage electronic devices of spaceships, satellites, positioning systems and electricity distribution grids. Thus, the forecasting of solar X-rays is needed to warn organizations and mitigate undesirable effects. Traditional mining classification methods categorize observations into labels, and we aim to extend this approach to predict future X-ray levels. Therefore, we developed the “SeMiner” method, which allows the prediction of future events. “SeMiner” processes X-rays into sequences employing a new algorithm called “Series-to-Sequence” (SS). It employs a sliding window approach configured by a specialist. Then, the sequences are submitted to a classifier to generate a model that predicts X-ray levels. An optimized version of “SS” was also developed using parallelization techniques and Graphical Processing Units, in order to speed up the entire forecasting process. The obtained results indicate that “SeMiner” is well-suited to predict solar X-rays and solar flares within the defined time range. It reached more than 90% of accuracy for a 2-day forecast, and more than 80% of True Positive (TPR) and True Negative (TNR) rates predicting X-ray levels. It also reached an accuracy of 72.7%, with a TPR of 70.9% and TNR of 79.7% when predicting solar flares. Moreover, the optimized version of “SS” proved to be 4.36 faster than its initial version.
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