# Waves as the Symmetry Principle Underlying Cosmic, Cell, and Human Languages

## Abstract

**:**

**sound waves**for humanese,

**concentration waves**for cellese, and

**quantum waves**for cosmese. These waves were suggested to be the symmetry principle underlying cosmese, cellese, and humanese. We can recognize at least five varieties of waves—(i) electromagnetic; (ii) mechanical; (iii) chemical concentration; (iv) gravitational; and (v) probability waves, the last being non-material, in contrast to the first four, which are all material. The study of waves is called “cymatics” and the invention of CymaScope by J. S. Reid of the United Kingdom in 2002 is expected to accelerate the study of waves in general. CymaScope has been used to visualize not only human sounds (i.e., humanese) but also sounds made by individual cells (cellese) in conjunction with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) (unpublished observations of J. Gimzewski of UCLA and J. Reid). It can be predicted that the gravitational waves recently detected by the Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) will be visualized with CymaScope one day, thereby transforming gravitational waves into CymaGlyphs. Since cellese in part depends on RNA concentration waves (or RNA glyphs) and humanese includes hieroglyphs that were decoded by Champollion in 1822, it seems reasonable to use cymaglyphs, RNA glyphs, and hieroglyphs as symbols of cosmese, cellese, and humanese, respectively, all based on the principle of waves as the medium of communication.

## 1. Introduction

“It seems as though we must use sometimes the one theory and sometimes the other, while at times we may use either. We are faced with a new kind of difficulty. We have two contradictory pictures of reality; separately neither of them fully explains the phenomena of light, but together they do”.

## 2. Complementarity vs. Supplementarity

“...in certain persons, at least, the total possible consciousness may be split into parts which coexist but mutually ignore each other, and share the objects of knowledge between them. More remarkable still, they are complementary...”

^{2}, may be cited. Energy (A) and matter (B) may be viewed as extreme manifestations of their source (C), which can be quantitatively combined or added to completely characterize C. As already indicated, there is no common word to represent the C term corresponding to the combination of matter and energy. Therefore, we will adopt in this article the often-used term “mattergy” (meaning matter and energy) to represent C. Through Einstein’s equation, matter and energy can be interconverted quantitatively. The enormity of the numerical value of c

^{2}, namely, 10

^{21}, justifies the statement that

“...The computational universe is not an alternative to the physical universe. The universe that evolves by processing information and the universe that evolves by the laws of physics are one and the same. The two descriptions, computational and physical, are complementary ways of capturing the same phenomena.”

## 3. Blackbody Radiation and the Planckian Distribution Equation (PDE)

- E = Energy
- λ = Wavelength
- c = Speed of light
- k = Boltzmann constant
- h = Planck’s constant
- e = 2.71828182
- [T] = Kelvin (temperature)
- [λ] = Meters
- h = 6.626 × 10
^{34}J·s - c = 2.998 × 10
^{8}m/s - k = 1.381 × 10
^{−23}J/K.

#### 3.1. Gibbs Free Energy of Protein Folding

_{unfolded}− G

_{folded}> 0, which is referred to as the free energy of protein folding or protein stability [24]. Gibbs free energy G is defined as G = H + PV − TS, where H is enthalpy or heat content, V is the volume, P is the pressure, and S is the entropy of the thermodynamic system under consideration. Under the conditions of constant T and P, this equation leads to ΔG = ΔH + PΔV − TΔS, where ∆ indicates the change calculated by subtracting the initial from the final values. Based on experimentally determined enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, and the length distributions of 43,000 proteins from E. coli, Dill and co-workers [24] derived a theoretical equation for predicting the protein stability which generated the experimental curve labeled Experimental in Figure 1a. As shown, this theoretical curve is almost perfectly simulated by the Planckian distribution equation.

#### 3.2. RNA Levels in Budding Yeast

#### 3.3. RNA Levels in Human Breast Tissue

#### 3.4. Human T-Cell Receptor Gene Sequence Diversity

_{gen}(σ). P

_{gen}(σ) is the sum of the probabilities of all recombination events involved in producing CDR3 sequence σ. A typical example of the CDR3 sequence histogram predicted by P

_{gen}(σ) for one subject is given in Figure 1d, which fits the Planckian distribution equation excellently (I am grateful to Mr. Vinay Vadali for this fitting).

#### 3.5. Gene Size Frequency Distribution in the Human Genome

#### 3.6. 7-Mer Frequency Distribution in Pyrococcus Abyssi

#### 3.7. Codon Profile in the Human Genome

#### 3.8. mRNA Size Frequency Distribution in the Human Genome

#### 3.9. Protein Length Distribution in Haemophilus Influenzae

#### 3.10. Olfactory Cortex EEG Distribution

#### 3.11. fMRI Signals from the Human Brain before and after Psilocybin

_{p}(defined in Section 5), which increased from 0.93 to 1.62 and 1.04 to 1.31, respectively, after the psilocybin infusion (see Row k in Table 3). This observation suggests to this author that PDE, Equation (9), and its three free parameters, A, B, and C, may be utilized to classify all fMRI signals measured from live individuals under normal and pathological conditions, thereby offering an opportunity for discovering drugs for treating many CNS diseases, including chronic depression and Alzheimer’s disease.

#### 3.12. Decision-Time Histogram

#### 3.13. Word-Length Frequency Distribution in Kerry’s Speech

#### 3.14. Word-Length Frequency Distribution in English Letters

#### 3.15. Sentence-Length Frequency Distribution in Private Letters

#### 3.16. Annual U.S. Income Distribution

_{P}, defined in Equation (15) in Section 5.

#### 3.17. Polarized Cosmological Microwave Background Radiation

_{P}. Using Equation (18) in Section 5, we can calculate two I

_{P}values, one associated with CMB and the other with PDE—the former was 0.44 bits and the latter 0.72 bits, almost twice the value of the former, indicating that the CMB data are less organized than is predicted by PDE. One possible interpretation of this difference may be that the polarized CMB radiation “lost” some of its information about the Big Bang due to the randomizing effects of galactic dust [3]). If this interpretation proves to be valid, the BICEP2 data may provide an alternative support for the eixistence of the gravitational waves recently demonstrated by the LIGO experiments [45].

## 4. Planckian Distribution Equation May Be to Dissipative Structures What the Periodic Table Is to Equilibrium Structures

## 5. The Planckian Information: A New Measure of Order

^{−(x − μ)^2/2σ^2}

^{2})

^{−0.5}) e

^{−(x − μ)^2/2σ^2}.

_{P}[2,3]:

_{P}= log

_{2}(AUC(PDE)/AUC(GLE)).

_{P}, it may be helpful to compare it with the Boltzmann—Gibbs and Shannon entropies which are, by contrast, measures of disorder. As is well known, the meanings of the terms “entropy” (and its derivative “negentropy”) and “information” are controversial, perhaps because of their lack of precise, mathematical definitions. However, this is, fortunately, not the case for the phrase “quantum of action” or “quanta of action”. Hence, if “entropy” and “information” can be shown to be related to “quanta” mathematically, such a triadic relation may contribute to clarifying the true meanings of “entropy” and “information”.

## 6. The Petoukhov Hypothesis

“Any living organism is a great chorus of coordinated oscillatory (also called vibrational; my addition) processes (mechanical, electrical, piezoelectric, biochemical, etc.), which are connected with their genetic inheritance along chains of generations.”

“From a formal point of view, a living organism is an oscillatory system with a large number of degrees of freedom, Resonances in such a system can serve as mechanisms for harmonization and ordering of its set of oscillatory processes.”

“A new slogan can be proposed:any living body is a musical instrument(a synthesizer with an abundance of rearrangements of resonant modes).”

“An ordinary enzyme possesses 10^{3}to 10^{4}vibrational degrees of freedom. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the vibrational motions of individual bonds in the enzyme will be far more important in enzyme catalysis than the translational or rotational motions of the enzyme as a whole. Given all the vibrational frequencies of the individual bonds in an enzyme, as well as their three –dimensional arrangements, we can in principle deduce the thermodynamic and catalytic properties of the enzyme under any conditions.”

- (i)
- its role in generating functions and organizations through goal-directed selection of subsets of Gaussian processes (see Figure 4), and
- (ii)
- the wav–particle duality operating in living systems.”

## 7. Cymatics and Chladni Patterns

## 8. Water as the Molecular Sensor of Sound Waves: “Sonoaquascopy”

## 9. The Fourier Language as the Cosmic Language (Cosmese)

- (i)
- CymaGlyphs are the words and sentences of a cosmological language based on waves discovered by Fourier in 1807.
- (ii)
- The grammar of the cosmological language is the Fourier theorem.
- (iii)
- The linguistic principle of rule-governed creativity applies to CymaGlyphs.

**waves**= the medium of cosmic communication, and

**CymaGlyphs**= the cosmic messages whose meaning may be identified with “BEAUTY” among others, in agreement with Masaru Emoto [66].

## 10. Triadic Monism: The Universality of the Irreducible Triadic Relation (ITR)

^{2}, which can be viewed as a supplementary relation and, since the combination of energy and matter is conserved according to the First Law of thermodynamics, it would be logical and natural to combine these two terms into one word, matter–energy or mattergy, as is widely done. Similarly, it may be convenient to coin a new word to represent the combination of information and knowledge, namely, “information–knowledge” or “infoknowledge”, more briefly (see Arrows 4/5 relative to Arrows 1/8 in Figure 7).

- (i)
- (ii)

**A**, which is the complementary union of irreconcilable opposites

**B**and

**C**. That is, complementarism asserts that the ultimate reality is three in one and hence its philosophical framework is here referred to as

**triadic monism**which can be diagrammatically represented as shown in Figure 8. According to Darvas [69], the world is asymmetric, embodying symmetry and antisymmetry:

**Asymmetry**=

**Symmetry**+

**Antisymmetry**.

## 11. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**The universality of the Planckian distribution. (

**a**) Protein folding; (

**b**) RNA metabolism in unicellular organism ([1], Chapter 12);

**c**) RNA metabolism in human breast tissues; (

**d**) human T-cell variable region gene diversity [28]; (

**e**) Gene size frequency distribtuin in the human genome; (

**f**) 7-Mer frequency distribution in Pyrococcus abyssi; (

**g**) Codon profile in the human genome; (

**h**) mRNA size frequency distribution in the human genome (intraon and outliers excluded); (

**i**) Protein length frequency distribution in Haemophilus influenze; (

**j**) Stimulated olfactory cortex potential distribution; (

**k**) fMRI signals from the human brain before and after arterial infusion of psilocybin; (

**l**) Decision time histogram; (

**m**) Word-length frequency distribution in Kerry’s speech in 2004; (

**n**) Word-length frequency distribution in English texts; (

**o**) Sentnece-length frequency distribution in private letters; (

**p**) USA annual income distribution in 1996; (

**q**) USA annual income distribution in 2013; and (

**r**) Polarized cosmological microwave background radiation.

**Figure 2.**TQI (Thermodynamics, Quantum mechanics, and Informatics) category is essential for communication or semiosis. f = quantization or organization; g = selection; h = grounding, or realization. (Naming of these arrows are of secondary importance, because there may be more than one ways of naming them, depending on the context of discourse. The commutative condition is thought to be satisfied: f × g = h, i.e., f followed by g leads to the same result as h.

**Figure 3.**A possible irreducibly triadic relation among thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, and informatics. In other words, f followed by g leads to the same result h. f = cosmogenesis (?); g = cognogenesis (?); and h = information flow or grounding.

**Figure 4.**The postulate that the universal applicability of the Planckian distribution equation (PDE) to many physicochemical processes in nature is the result of the operation of the principle of the wave-particle duality in the universe at all scales of material systems, from atoms to the living cell, to the human brain, and to the universe [1,2,3], i.e., from Matter

**to Mind**. The first term in PDE represents the number of standing waves in the system under consideration and the second term the average energy of the standing waves. It is assumed that the number and shapes of the standing wave formed in the system under consideration determined the function of the system as indicated on the right-hand side of the figure.

**Figure 5.**Formation of the standing waves of particles (called Chladni figures) on a metal plate vibrating at different frequencies. Retrieved from [57].

**Figure 6.**Music visualized using a CymaScope. (Upper panel) human vocal music; (middle panel) halo drum melody; (lower panel) 12 piano notes. These so-called “CymaGlyphs” were retrieved from [7] Human brainwave frequencies visualized. α rhythm = 8–13 Hz (relaxed waking state); β rhythm = 18–22 Hz (rational waking state); θ rhythm = 4–7 Hz (meditative state); δ rhythm = 1–3 Hz (deep sleep state).

**Figure 7.**The suggested qualitative (or complementary) and quantitative (or supplementary) relationships between energy, matter, information, and knowledge. Adopted with modification (see Gnergy) from Figure 21.1 in ([1] p. 636). Gnergy = the complementary union of information (gn-) and energy/matter (-ergy). Mattergy = the combination of matter and energy that is conserved in the universe, according to the First Law of thermodynamics. “Infoknowledge” = a new term coined by combining information and knowledge in analogy to mattergy, symbolizing the supplementary union of information and knowledge. It is postulated here that infoknowledge is to formal systems, F, what mattergy is to natural system, N and that infoknowlege and mattergy are complementary aspects of realty.

**Figure 8.**The gnergy principle of the Universe depicted as a body-centered tetrahedron. G = Gnergy (i.e., the complementary union of information (gn-) and energy (-ergy) [1]),

**E**= Energy,

**M**= Matter,

**I**= Information, and

**L**= Life. The model of the Universe based on the gnergy principle is known as the Shillongator ([17], pp.230–237).

**Figure 9.**Triadic monism: The ultimate reality as the irreducible triad of asymmetry (

**A**), symmetry (

**B**), and antisymmetry (

**C**).

**A**= lack of symmetry;

**B**= symmetry defined in Statement (14), and

**C**= Transition to its opposite under a certain kind of transformation; e.g., the colors of the yin–yang symbol change from black to white or vice versa when the symbol is rotated 180°, while its shape remains unchanged.

**Table 1.**The Symmetry Principle of Biology and Physics (SPBP): the principles of supplementarity and complementarity in action in physics and biology. “Wavecles” are complementary unions of waves and particles, and “quons” are quantum mechanical objects exhibiting wave or particle properties depending on the measuring apparatus employed [8]. “Gnergy” is defined as a complementary union of information (gn-) and energy (-ergy) [17]. In other words, energy and information (or more accurately mattergy and liformation) are the complementary aspects of gnergy.

Physics | Biology | |
---|---|---|

Supplementarity (from Special Relativity Theory) | 1. Matter-Energy Equivalence E = mc^{2} | 6. Life-Information Equivalence ^{a} |

2. Matter-Energy or “Mattergy” ^{b} | 7. Life-Information or “Liformation” ^{c} | |

3. “Matter is a highly condensed form of energy.” | 8. “Life is a highly condensed form of information.” | |

Complementarity (from Quantum Mechanics) | 4. Wave-Particle ^{d} Complementarity; Kinematics-Dynamics Complementarity ^{e} | 9. “Liformation–Mattergy” Complementarity |

5. “Wavicles” or “Quons” ^{f} | 10. “Gnergons” ^{g} |

^{a}Just as the matter–energy equivalence was unthinkable before Einstein’s special relativity theory published in 1905, so it is postulated here that the life–information equivalence was unthinkable prior to the emergence of molecular theories of life that began with Watson and Crick’s discovery of the DNA double helix in 1953.

^{b}The term often used to denote the equivalence between (or supplementary union of) matter and energy as indicated by E = mc

^{2}.

^{c}A new term coined here to represent the postulated supplementary relation (or the equivalence or continuity) between life and information, in analogy to mattergy, embodying the supplementary relation between matter and energy.

^{d}The Airy pattern (see Figure 4.2 in [8]) may be interpreted as evidence for a simultaneous measurement of both waves and particles of light, and if such an interpretation proves to be correct, it would deny the validity of the wave–particle complementarity and support the notion of the wave–particle supplementarity.

^{e}The kinematics–dynamics complementarity is a logically different kind of complementarity that was recognized by Bohr in addition to the wave–particle complementarity ([18] pp. 80–88).

^{f}Any material entities that exhibit both wave and particle properties, either simultaneously (as claimed by L. de Broglie [19] and D. Bohm [20]) or mutually exclusively (as claimed by Bohr [8].

^{g}Gnergons are defined as discrete units of gnergy, the complementary union of information and energy [17]. Gnergy is a type and gnergons are its tokens.

**Table 2.**The codon usage and codon profile for the amino acid arginine in the human genome. Adopted from ([30], p. II-23).

Synonymous Codon Usage | Codon Profile | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

CGT | 8% | base | Position in the triplet | ||

CGC | 19% | 1 | 2 | 3 | |

CGA | 11% | T | 0 | 0 | 0.08 |

CGG | 21% | C | 0.59 | 0 | 0.19 |

AGA | 21% | A | 0.41 | 0 | 0.32 |

AGG | 20% | G | 0 | 1 | 0.41 |

sum | 100% | sum | 1 | 1 | 1 |

**Table 3.**The numerical values of the parameters of the Planckian distribution, Equations (8) or (9), that fit the histograms shown in Figure 1 along with the Planckian information (I

_{P}) values (defined in Section 5). The italicized red numbers in Row k are the parameter values measured post-psilocybin. The symbol, “-“ indicates “zero”, “none” or “not applicable”.

Histogram | a | b | A | B | C | b/A, I_{P} (mb) * |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

(a) Protein folding | 1.24 × 10^{14} | 368.3 | 9.45 | 6.82 | - | 38.97, 0.877 |

(b) RNA levels (yeast) | - | - | 1.11 × 10^{12} | 13.962 | 159.30 | -, 0.989 |

(c) RNA levels (breast tissue) | 8 × 10^{10} | 40 | 8 | 1.7 | - | 5.00, 0.855 |

(d) T-Cell receptor | - | - | 7.02 × 10^{6} | 0.063 | 25.00 | -, - |

(f) 7-Mer frequency | - | - | 5.05 × 10^{7} | 12.123 | 123.78 | -, 0.873 |

(i) Protein chain length | - | - | 2.04 × 10^{13} | 5.655 | 1257.4 | -, 0.846 |

5.0 × 10^{11} | 601.7 | 0.478 | 30.29 | - | 1257.7, - | |

(l) Decision times | 8.5 × 10^{11} | 101.49 | 0.1077 | 6.345 | - | 942.34, 3.57 |

(k) fMRI signals | 7.6 × 10^{10}4.4 × 10 ^{10} | 107.67 43.17 | 115.9 26.7 | 0 0 | - - | 0.928, 1.04 1.617, 1.31 |

(m) Word length in speech | - | - | 1.80 × 10^{7} | −0.001 | 12 | -, 0.557 |

(o) Sentence length in letters | - | - | 3.11 × 10^{9} | 0.861 | 47.57 | -, 0.664 |

(r) Cosmos | 3.6 × 10^{2} | 6.00 | 1.140 | −0.14 | - | 4.65, - |

1. Concept | Entropy (1) | Quanta (2) | Information (3) |

2. Field of study | Thermodynamics | Quantum mechanics | Informatics |

3. Experiment/Measurement | S = ΔQ/T | Blackbody radiation spectra | Selecting m out of n possibilities or choices |

4. Statistical, mechanical formulations | S = −k Σ p_{i} log p_{i} Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy (1866) * | U(λ,T) = (2πhc^{2}/λ^{5})/(e^{hc/λkT} − 1), Planck radiation equation (PRE) (1900) | I_{P} = log_{2}(AUC(P)/AUC(G)), where I_{P} = Planckian information, AUC = area under curve; P = PDE, and G = Gaussian-like equation, i.e., y = Ae^{−(x − µ)^2/(2σ^2)} |

5. Mathematical formulation | H = −K Σ p_{i} log p_{i} Shannon entropy (1948) | y = (a/(Ax + b)^{5})/(e^{b/(Ax + B)} − 1), Planckian distribution equation (PDE) (2008) | I = A log_{2} (n/m) A unified theory of the amount of information (2015a, c) |

6. Emerging Concept | A measure of DISORDER | Quantization of action Essential for ORGANIZATION | A measure of the ORDER of an organized system |

_{i}values are equal and W stands for the number of the microstate consistent with the macrostate of the system.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ji, S.
Waves as the Symmetry Principle Underlying Cosmic, Cell, and Human Languages. *Information* **2017**, *8*, 24.
https://doi.org/10.3390/info8010024

**AMA Style**

Ji S.
Waves as the Symmetry Principle Underlying Cosmic, Cell, and Human Languages. *Information*. 2017; 8(1):24.
https://doi.org/10.3390/info8010024

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ji, Sungchul.
2017. "Waves as the Symmetry Principle Underlying Cosmic, Cell, and Human Languages" *Information* 8, no. 1: 24.
https://doi.org/10.3390/info8010024