This paper analyzes peer-reviewed empirical eye-tracking studies of behavior in web search engines. A framework is created to examine the effectiveness of eye-tracking by drawing on the results of, and discussions concerning previous experiments. Based on a review of 56 papers on eye-tracking for search engines from 2004 to 2019, a 12-element matrix for coding procedure is proposed. Content analysis shows that this matrix contains 12 common parts: search engine; apparatus; participants; interface; results; measures; scenario; tasks; language; presentation, research questions; and findings. The literature review covers results, the contexts of web searches, a description of participants in eye-tracking studies, and the types of studies performed on the search engines. The paper examines the state of current research on the topic and points out gaps in the existing literature. The review indicates that behavior on search engines has changed over the years. Search engines’ interfaces have been improved by adding many new functions and users have moved from desktop searches to mobile searches. The findings of this review provide avenues for further studies as well as for the design of search engines.
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