This article investigates the simultaneous interaction between an automated vehicle (AV) and its passenger, and between the same AV and a human driver of another vehicle. For this purpose, we have implemented a multi-vehicle simulation consisting of two driving simulators, one for the AV and one for the manual vehicle. The considered scenario is a road bottleneck with a double-parked vehicle either on one side of the road or on both sides of the road where an AV and a simultaneously oncoming human driver negotiate the right of way. The AV communicates to its passenger via the internal automation human–machine interface (HMI) and it concurrently displays the right of way to the human driver via an external HMI. In addition to the regular encounters, this paper analyzes the effect of an automation failure, where the AV first communicates to yield the right of way and then changes its strategy and passes through the bottleneck first despite oncoming traffic. The research questions the study aims to answer are what methods should be used for the implementation of multi-vehicle simulations with one AV, and if there is an added benefit of this multi-vehicle simulation compared to single-driver simulator studies. The results show an acceptable synchronicity for using traffic lights as basic synchronization and a distance control as the detail synchronization method. The participants had similar passing times in the multi-vehicle simulation compared to a previously conducted single-driver simulation. Moreover, there was a lower crash rate in the multi-vehicle simulation during the automation failure. Concluding the results, the proposed method seems to be an appropriate solution to implement multi-vehicle simulation with one AV. Additionally, multi-vehicle simulation offers a benefit if more than one human affects the interaction within a scenario.
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