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# Numerical Calculations to Grasp a Mathematical Issue Such as the Riemann Hypothesis

Department of Computer Science and Networks, Télécom ParisTech, 75015 Paris, France
Information 2020, 11(5), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/info11050237
Received: 3 April 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 23 April 2020 / Published: 26 April 2020
This article presents the use of data processing to apprehend mathematical questions such as the Riemann Hypothesis (RH) by numerical calculation. Calculations are performed alongside graphs of the argument of the complex numbers $ζ ( x + i y ) = a + i b$ and $ξ ( x + i y ) = p + i q$ , in the critical strip. On the one hand, the two-dimensional surface angle $tan − 1 ( b / a )$ of the Riemann Zeta function $ζ$ is related to the semi-angle of the fractional part of $y 2 π ln ( y 2 π e )$ and, on the other hand, the Ksi function $ξ$ of the Riemann functional equation is analyzed with respect to the coordinates $( x , 1 − x ; y )$ . The computation of the power series expansion of the $ξ$ function with its symmetry analysis highlights the RH by the underlying ratio of Gamma functions inside the $ξ$ formula. The $ξ$ power series beside the angle of both surfaces of the $ζ$ function enables to exhibit a Bézout identity $a u + b v ≡ c$ between the components $( a , b )$ of the $ζ$ function, which illustrates the RH. The geometric transformations in complex space of the Zeta and Ksi functions, illustrated graphically, as well as series expansions, calculated by computer, make it possible to elucidate this mathematical problem numerically. A final theoretical outlook gives deeper insights on the functional equation’s mechanisms, by adopting a computer–scientific perspective. View Full-Text
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MDPI and ACS Style

Riguidel, M. Numerical Calculations to Grasp a Mathematical Issue Such as the Riemann Hypothesis. Information 2020, 11, 237. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11050237

AMA Style

Riguidel M. Numerical Calculations to Grasp a Mathematical Issue Such as the Riemann Hypothesis. Information. 2020; 11(5):237. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11050237

Chicago/Turabian Style

Riguidel, Michel. 2020. "Numerical Calculations to Grasp a Mathematical Issue Such as the Riemann Hypothesis" Information 11, no. 5: 237. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11050237

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