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Article

Interactive Visual Analysis of Mass Spectrometry Imaging Data Using Linear and Non-Linear Embeddings

1
Institute of Computer Science, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
2
Institute of Hygiene, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Information 2020, 11(12), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/info11120575
Received: 2 November 2020 / Revised: 1 December 2020 / Accepted: 2 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Opportunities in Visualization and Visual Analytics)
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an imaging technique used in analytical chemistry to study the molecular distribution of various compounds at a micro-scale level. For each pixel, MSI stores a mass spectrum obtained by measuring signal intensities of thousands of mass-to-charge ratios (m/z-ratios), each linked to an individual molecular ion species. Traditional analysis tools focus on few individual m/z-ratios, which neglects most of the data. Recently, clustering methods of the spectral information have emerged, but faithful detection of all relevant image regions is not always possible. We propose an interactive visual analysis approach that considers all available information in coordinated views of image and spectral space visualizations, where the spectral space is treated as a multi-dimensional space. We use non-linear embeddings of the spectral information to interactively define clusters and respective image regions. Of particular interest is, then, which of the molecular ion species cause the formation of the clusters. We propose to use linear embeddings of the clustered data, as they allow for relating the projected views to the given dimensions. We document the effectiveness of our approach in analyzing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-2) imaging data with ground truth obtained from histological images. View Full-Text
Keywords: interactive visual analysis; mass spectrometry imaging; linear embeddings; non-linear embeddings; dimensionality reduction; multidimensional data projections; coordinated views interactive visual analysis; mass spectrometry imaging; linear embeddings; non-linear embeddings; dimensionality reduction; multidimensional data projections; coordinated views
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jawad, M.; Soltwisch, J.; Dreisewerd, K.; Linsen, L. Interactive Visual Analysis of Mass Spectrometry Imaging Data Using Linear and Non-Linear Embeddings. Information 2020, 11, 575. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11120575

AMA Style

Jawad M, Soltwisch J, Dreisewerd K, Linsen L. Interactive Visual Analysis of Mass Spectrometry Imaging Data Using Linear and Non-Linear Embeddings. Information. 2020; 11(12):575. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11120575

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jawad, Muhammad, Jens Soltwisch, Klaus Dreisewerd, and Lars Linsen. 2020. "Interactive Visual Analysis of Mass Spectrometry Imaging Data Using Linear and Non-Linear Embeddings" Information 11, no. 12: 575. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11120575

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