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Article

Energy-Efficient Check-and-Spray Geocast Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

1
Department of Computer Science, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
2
Department of Information Technology, Netaji Subhas University of Technology, New Delhi 110078, India
3
Post-Graduation Program in Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Teresina 64049-550, Brazil
4
Covilhã Delegation, Instituto de Telecomunicações, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department of Computer Science, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Information 2020, 11(11), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/info11110504
Received: 20 September 2020 / Revised: 18 October 2020 / Accepted: 24 October 2020 / Published: 28 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle-To-Everything (V2X) Communication)
Opportunistic networks (OppNets) are a type of challenged network where there is no guaranteed of end-to-path between the nodes for data delivery because of intermittent connectivity, node mobility and frequent topology changes. In such an environment, the routing of data is a challenge since the battery power of the mobile nodes drains out quickly because of multi-routing activities such as scanning, transmitting, receiving, and computational processing, effecting the overall network performance. In this paper, a novel routing protocol for OppNets called Energy-Efficient Check-and-Spray Geocast Routing (EECSG) is proposed, which introduces an effective way of message distribution in the geocasting region to all residing nodes while saving the energy consumption by restricting the unnecessary packet transmission in that region. A Check-and-Spray technique is also introduced to eliminate the overhead of packets in the geocast region. The proposed EECSG is evaluated by simulations and compared against the Efficient and Flexible Geocasting for Opportunistic Networks (GSAF) and the Centrality- Based Geocasting for Opportunistic networks (CGOPP) routing protocols in terms of average latency, delivery ratio, number of messages forwarded, number of dead nodes, overhead ratio, and hop count, showing superior performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: geocast; routing protocol; opportunistic network; check-and-spray geocast; routing protocol; opportunistic network; check-and-spray
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khalid, K.; Woungang, I.; Dhurandher, S.K.; Singh, J.; J. P. C. Rodrigues, J. Energy-Efficient Check-and-Spray Geocast Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks. Information 2020, 11, 504. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11110504

AMA Style

Khalid K, Woungang I, Dhurandher SK, Singh J, J. P. C. Rodrigues J. Energy-Efficient Check-and-Spray Geocast Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks. Information. 2020; 11(11):504. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11110504

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khalid, Khuram, Isaac Woungang, Sanjay K. Dhurandher, Jagdeep Singh, and Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues. 2020. "Energy-Efficient Check-and-Spray Geocast Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks" Information 11, no. 11: 504. https://doi.org/10.3390/info11110504

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