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User Education in Automated Driving: Owner’s Manual and Interactive Tutorial Support Mental Model Formation and Human-Automation Interaction
Open AccessArticle

Driving Style: How Should an Automated Vehicle Behave?

WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Jaguar Land Rover, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Information 2019, 10(6), 219;
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automotive User Interfaces and Interactions in Automated Driving)
PDF [1837 KB, uploaded 25 June 2019]


This article reports on a study to investigate how the driving behaviour of autonomous vehicles influences trust and acceptance. Two different designs were presented to two groups of participants (n = 22/21), using actual autonomously driving vehicles. The first was a vehicle programmed to drive similarly to a human, “peeking” when approaching road junctions as if it was looking before proceeding. The second design had a vehicle programmed to convey the impression that it was communicating with other vehicles and infrastructure and “knew” if the junction was clear so could proceed without ever stopping or slowing down. Results showed non-significant differences in trust between the two vehicle behaviours. However, there were significant increases in trust scores overall for both designs as the trials progressed. Post-interaction interviews indicated that there were pros and cons for both driving styles, and participants suggested which aspects of the driving styles could be improved. This paper presents user information recommendations for the design and programming of driving systems for autonomous vehicles, with the aim of improving their users’ trust and acceptance. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomous vehicles; driving behaviour; user study; qualitative methods; acceptance; user-centred design autonomous vehicles; driving behaviour; user study; qualitative methods; acceptance; user-centred design

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Oliveira, L.; Proctor, K.; Burns, C.G.; Birrell, S. Driving Style: How Should an Automated Vehicle Behave? Information 2019, 10, 219.

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