Next Article in Journal
Use of Bacteriocinogenic Cultures without Inhibiting Cheese Associated Nonstarter Lactic Acid Bacteria; A Trial with Lactobacillus plantarum
Previous Article in Journal
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Challenges in 2015
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Challenges 2016, 7(1), 2;

Challenges in Creating Evidence in Environmental Health Risk Assessments: The Example of Second-Hand Smoke

Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Public Health, Bielefeld University, P.O. Box 100131, Bielefeld 33501, Germany
Academic Editor: Palmiro Poltronieri
Received: 9 September 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 19 January 2016 / Published: 30 January 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [519 KB, uploaded 30 January 2016]   |  


Public health interventions are directed to influence the (state of a) risk factor, either by behavioral or environmental changes. Therefore, environmental health risk assessments are highly relevant for public health decision making and policy development. The credibility of an environmental health risk assessment depends, to a large extent, on the strength of the scientific evidence on which it is based. In this article, the main challenges for assessing the impact of a potential adverse health effect from an environmental pollutant are described. Second-hand smoke (SHS) was chosen to illustrate the current state of evidence. The assessment of the impact of potential adverse health effects from environmental risk factors is dependent on several issues, such as the hypothesized health outcome, the nature of the exposure, the dose-response-relationship and the variability and susceptibility of the exposed population. The example of SHS exposure highlights the need for evidence-based public health. Several challenges in terms of study design, assessment methods, as well as data analysis and synthesis with respect to the stratification of results, and consideration of bias and confounding exist. Future research needs to take into account which methods and techniques will be used to generate evidence for population-level decisions. View Full-Text
Keywords: second-hand smoke; evidence; exposure; health effects; environmental risk second-hand smoke; evidence; exposure; health effects; environmental risk

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fischer, F. Challenges in Creating Evidence in Environmental Health Risk Assessments: The Example of Second-Hand Smoke. Challenges 2016, 7, 2.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Challenges EISSN 2078-1547 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top