- freely available
Challenges 2019, 10(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/challe10010024
1.1. Examples of Philanthrocapitalism
1.2. Global and Planetary Health
1.3. The Peril of Failing Planetary Health
2. Inequality, Revolts and Epidemics: The Seedbed for Health Philanthrocapitalism
2.1. Saving the British Class System
2.2. Saving American Capitalism
2.3. Saving the World System
2.4. The Rise and Decline of WHO as a Promoter of Global Health
- “Bill and Melinda Gates added to the momentum by hosting a dinner at their home for leading scientists to discuss what could be done to overcome the barriers preventing millions of children from receiving basic vaccines. Bill and Melinda challenged their guests to come back with proposals for “breakthrough solutions.”
- “In March 1999, a second summit at Bellagio in northern Italy provided the answer to the Gates’ challenge. Rather than setting up a new international organization, the existing major players in global immunization—the key UN agencies, leaders of the vaccine industry, representatives of bilateral aid agencies and major foundations—agreed to work together through a new partnership: the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance).”
- “The Vaccine Alliance’s dream of delivering vaccines to millions of the world’s poorest children moved a step closer to reality in November 1999, when the Gates Foundation pledged US$ 750 million over five years to GAVI. Two months later, in January 2000, GAVI was formally launched at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.”
3. BMGF Characteristics Relevant to Global and Planetary Health
3.1. The Allegedly Hierarchical Structure of the BMGF
3.2. The BMGF’s Preference for Vertical Health Programs
3.3. The BMGF’s Focus on Technology, Especially Vaccines
3.4. The BMGF’s Use of Self-Funded Metrics as a Way to Measure But Perhaps Not Solve the Problem
3.5. The Co-Option of Independence by the BMGF
3.6. Conflicts of Interest of the BMGF and Other Philanthrocapitalists
4. Carbon, Divestment, Philanthrocapitalism, and Planetary Health
Conflicts of Interest
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|Name||Founder(s)||Founded||Website||Assets (a)/Endowment (e) (US$ bn)||Annual Budget US$ (bn)||Carbon Investment Policy|
|Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation||Bill and Melinda Gates||2000||https://www.gatesfoundation.org/||46 (a)||4.7||largely or fully divested|
|Wellcome Trust||Henry Wellcome||1936||https://wellcome.ac.uk/||27 (a)||1.4 (2017)||invest|
|The Open Foundations||George Soros||1979||https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/about||18 (e)||unsure|
|Leverhulme Trust||William Lever||1925||https://www.leverhulme.ac.uk/||4.2(a)||0.1 (2017)||unsure|
|Rockefeller Foundation||John D Rockefeller||1913||https://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/about-us/our-history/||4.1 (a) (2016)||fully divested|
|The UN Foundation||Ted Turner||1998||https://unfoundation.org/||2 (a)||0.115||unsure #|
|Health Discipline||Multi-Disciplinary||Focus on Poor||Global Structural Power||Eco-Climatic Factors||Infectious Diseases||Demographic Factors ^||Conflict|
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