Acknowledgment of Country: Intersecting Australian Pentecostalisms Reembeding Spirit in Place
Global Pentecostalism and Its Impulses
2. Nimi Wariboko’s Proposal
3. Hillsong as Metropolis
In the early years, Hillsong often entreated the Spirit to descend upon the Australian landscape, sacralising hearts, bodies and this space the worshippers inhabited (Riches 2010b, p. 13). As this music was distributed in the UK and North American churches, it began to be used as evidence that God was moving even in the “outermost parts of the earth” (Acts 1:8), a metaphor for reverse mission back to the centre of Christendom. There was a clear shift in the church’s imagination to extend their geographical borders beyond Sydney and towards the world (Riches and Wagner 2012; Evans 2015). Much of the local content was steadily replaced by more global lyrics and imagery (Riches and Wagner 2012). Once Darlene Zschech assumed the role of lead worship pastor, Hillsong’s songs largely dispensed with the petition “Holy Spirit, come.” Instead, songwriters reinforced the idea that God was always present, even when seemingly absent in a post-9/11 world.7 Arguably, however, the main purpose for Hillsong’s music-making prevailed, which was the reconstruction of the Australian church as a central social institution. In this endeavour, the congregation actively participated, discerning God’s supernatural anointing upon aspects of the worship service and energising these expressions. This could be measured in two ways: Physical participation in the worship event, and sales of the music (Riches 2010b, p. 50). Today, few Australians doubt that Hillsong is the dominant expression of contemporary Christianity in the nation. However, within the church itself, talk of God has expanded from reproducing its distinct practices towards developing language appropriate for the commons, or urban polis. Notions of Spirit absence have been replaced with immanence—God is everywhere, both in and outside of the church (See Riches (2016) for lyrical examples of this transition).There would be few churches in Australia, of any denomination or persuasion, unaffected by the music of Hillsong Music Australia (HMA). Though some Christians told me they would never set foot in Hillsong Church due to theological differences, they were more than happy to sing music written and produced there.
4. Aboriginal Pentecostalism as Heteropolis
More recently, Akiko Ono (2011, 2012) returned to these Bundjalung churches with Calley’s printed photographs to reconstruct an oral history of these congregations. Her conclusion was that even today, many aspects of the Dreaming remained.Aboriginal Pentecostalism is not merely a welding of Christianity onto a mixed blood community. It is an integration of a new religion into the social framework of the old… the new religion, like the old, is partly magical and aspects of both the indigenous and alien cultures has been verified.
These Pentecostals noted in interviews that white Australian pastors often rejected or blatantly ignored the Aboriginal community’s requests for basic cultural recognition, citing their refusal to perform even a ceremonial “Acknowledgement to Country” to honour the traditional landowners. Many were confused by the fact that, although every Australian school and government meeting acknowledged Aboriginal Elders, they were often left unacknowledged (and therefore marginalised via their lack of visibility) at events held in the church building and by Christian leaders in public space. Many interviewees associated this decision with the missionaries, who often prohibited traditional ceremonial language and discouraged involvement in ceremonial life.If a white person said, “Amelia is your church an Aboriginal church?” I wouldn’t get offended—you know what I used to say? I used to say, “No, I tell the Lord it’s his church, not our church.” I said, “He could bring whoever he wants there”… [W]e used to always sing this song when visitors came … (sings) “There’s a welcome here. There’s a welcome here. There’s a Christian welcome here.”
In Indigenous life, yarning creates rapport and accountability within a transformative relationship. Ganggalah participants vocalised the benefits of forming friendships with white Christians in a church context. In particular, they hoped the recent establishment of a denominational Australian Christian Churches (ACC) “Indigenous Initiative” would bring change. The Ganggalah leaders were, through this initiative, helping form institutional links between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal churches. All interviewees celebrated Welcome (and Acknowledgement) as a practice that may facilitate a successful, equalising dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in the urban context, something not often present either in society generally—or in urban Australian Pentecostal liturgies. In the task of yarning, participants together discern the Spirit in their world, creating narratives together that amplify Indigenous values and concerns, even within Western institutions (Walker et al. 2013, p. 8). This practice was also considered to reembed the worship into the Australian land.I will listen to you, share with you, as you listen to, share with me… Our shared experiences are different, but in the inner deep listening to, and quiet, still awareness of each other, we learn and grow together. In this we create community, and our shared knowledge(s) and wisdom are expanded from our communication with each other.
5. Intersections between the Metropolis and Heteropolis
This was followed by a roar in the stadium from the gathered conference attendees. A pre-recorded video with similar words was repeated in 2018 before thousands of attendees at the three Colour conferences for women in March (with this Acknowledgement spoken over the image of Sydney’s Harbour Bridge) and was also repeated at Hillsong Conference in July (with the Acknowledgement spoken over footage of green land). At the opening of the new Hillsong campus in Perth, a more traditional Welcome to Country was performed by a local Noongar woman, Frances Ramsey.“In the beginning, the earth was formless and void. Darkness was upon the bottomless depths. … and the Spirit of God rushed upon the waters.”As the Psalmist says, “When you send your Spirit, you renew the face of the earth.”We are gathered together tonight during our National NAIDOC week on the Country of the Wann-gal people, the traditional custodians who lived and danced by the river.And Aboriginal people were and are here. We acknowledge the Elders past, present and future.Now together in many languages, from many lands, we join to worship Jesus, the author and the finisher of our faith, the One who unites all peoples, nations and tongues.
Some of the Ganggalah Church members also responded, including one who stated that it was “a defining moment in church history. Made me cry tears of joy. It broke down natural and spiritual walls.” In addition, non-Indigenous congregation members commented, including one of the African American college students:What I loved about the Acknowledgment last year was linking the bible verse about people dancing and celebrating on the land with the connection on lifting up Jesus. Under one name. Something that God is really taking me on a journey through is that intersection, paying respect to culture in faith-filled way.
Although most believed that this had been a positive move forward for reconciliation, Aboriginal people had varied opinions on how Acknowledgements should be integrated into church practice. A member of the Darwin campus wrote:The first time I was at conference and witnessed the Acknowledgement to Country [at Hillsong Conference], I cried. It was beautiful. To me it wasn’t just church choosing to recognise and honour the people of the land, it was church choosing to see and value them.
Others noted that they only really appreciate the ceremonial moment when it is “real,” or “happens out of genuine respect.” They pointed to the need for reconciliation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous congregation members to overflow from these speech acts. Another stated, “when it becomes part of a bureaucratic checklist it can feel flat.” Some noted that spoken Acknowledgement was a colonial appropriation of the more traditional performances that included smoking ceremonies. However, it was clear that the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members of Hillsong had enjoyed greater participation in the church since this speech act had occurred, with leaders understanding who they were and sparking conversations about their traditional lands and cultures. In this way, Hillsong as metropolis had acknowledged the heteropolis in its own congregation in some new ways.In a Christian context, I believe that we Indigenous and other people always need to include the Great I AM, without exception. As that’s what our business is about in the first instance.
6. Discussion: The Charismatic City
He describes a “city where there is openness to the surprises of the Holy Spirit, irruptions of divine energies for communion, and the flourishing of human coexistence (Wariboko 2014, p. 177). Wariboko (2014, p. 171) asserts, “this is … how the body of Christ is; it is space and places opened up by Jesus of Nazareth.” In fact, he terms this a “turn to land” (Wariboko 2014, p. 179). This “enspirited” church is a work in progress, changing and adapting to its other and the context in which it lives. Thus, as Pentecostal congregations interact upon each other, they have capacity to bring Robbins’s “world making” and “world breaking” impulses together simultaneously within today’s globalising (and secularising) era.The body of Christ exceeds the limits of Christian membership. In the era of globalization and the emergence of the global commons, the worldwide body of Christ has become one immense, cosmopolitan city or world city.
These new speech acts bring the alternative into the main arena, but now empowered with religiously imbued meaning. This serves as representative of a new polis being created.By celebrating the “pluralism” that comes from speaking in many tongues, the movement undercuts heteronomous imposition of any truth for the privilege of consensual, investigative, pragmatic truth by those who autonomously subject themselves to the Spirit of God.
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Here the intention is not to argue that such speech-acts are replacing the doctrinally unique glossolalic and xenolalic practices, which continue in other contexts of the church.
This article draws upon Richard Trugden’s well known volume Why Warriors Lay Down and Die (Trudgen 2000), which contrasts Australian “dominant culture” (meaning Settler or Western culture) against diverse Aboriginal cultures (such as Yolngu) on Australia’s mainland. The Yongu Elders are marginalised within public discourse. Thus, the diverse first nations provide alternative Australian societies which are at times in opposition to the state.
All participants whose comments appear in this paper gave their consent for the content (and their name where relevant) to appear in writing.
Here Anderson cites “Catholic, Anglican, Orthodox, and various Protestant Charismatics” and notes that they “sometimes approach the subject of Spirit baptism and spiritual gifts from a sacramental perspective” (Anderson 2013, p. 6).
This rises to 6% in remote rural areas, but for the purposes of contrast no measure of Pentecostalism exists.
Little work has been done on these intersections from a Christian perspective, although this is the subject of a forthcoming edited journal via Australasian Pentecostal Studies.
However, although most of the participants enjoyed watching traditional dance and approved of Welcome to Country, only a few tolerated smoking ceremonies, and none would attend a blood ceremony.
This is an Aboriginal Lingo word which means conversation.
Employees such as myself, Jason Allen (CityCare head of department at the time) and Vicky Rough were able to issue invitations to self-identified Aboriginal attendees across the various Sydney campuses, but changes to media law have since changed this process significantly.
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Riches, T. Acknowledgment of Country: Intersecting Australian Pentecostalisms Reembeding Spirit in Place. Religions 2018, 9, 287. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9100287
Riches T. Acknowledgment of Country: Intersecting Australian Pentecostalisms Reembeding Spirit in Place. Religions. 2018; 9(10):287. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9100287Chicago/Turabian Style
Riches, Tanya. 2018. "Acknowledgment of Country: Intersecting Australian Pentecostalisms Reembeding Spirit in Place" Religions 9, no. 10: 287. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9100287