2. The Lulav
3. Early Modern Christian Mockery of the Lulav
4. Seventeenth-Century Jewish Responses
This unfavorable description portrays the holiday as far more than a temporary civic inconvenience. Invoking themes such as the destruction of agriculture, the association between the lulav and weapons, and above all the depiction of the celebrating Jews as leaping goats (an animal often affiliated with Bacchus), the Jewish author vividly echoes the common Christian perception of Sukkot as something between a reckless superstition and Jewish bacchanalia. The annual display of ecstatic malice accompanied by hints of repressed aspirations for armed rebellion is one of the key points in this Christian Haman’s argument that all Jews should be eliminated. This short extract illustrates that Jews were aware of these Christian perceptions and feared the gaze of modern “Hamans” who based their harmful intentions on them.And on the 15th day of the month of Tishrei they cover their tabernacles with branches. They go out to our fields to cut our palm trees for “lulav” as well as citrons and willows. While doing so, they destroy our fields, yank branches, and show no mercy. They create their “Hoshana” and say: “As the king does in his warfare—So do we”. Then they go into their synagogues, read their books, celebrate, circle the building with the Hoshana, while jumping and hopping like goats. We do not know if they curse us or bless us. They call this holiday Sukkot…22
The holy feast of Sukkot, which is celebrated with palm trees [lulav] and tree branches [Sukkah], was not dedicated to Bacchus, as Plutarch mistakenly thought. Rather it was celebrated in honor of the redeemer of Israel and the creator of the world, who guided His people in the desert protected by clouds while they were sitting in tents and tabernacles.25
The tradition which is provided to explain this law is false. It claims that the Law prescribes to take a citron, which is a beautiful fruit, as well as branches of certain other trees, and with these in hand to make movements and thrusts… And God tells the one who plays such games and makes such inventions before Him without His authorization, to be gone from His sight, because He cannot abide it… The branches, then, were intended for the construction of booths and not at all for carrying about or for practicing the art of fencing.
5. “As Even the Christians Admit”—Aviad Shar Shalom Basilea
6. Striking Back: Shaul Merari, Yona Rappa, and Moshe David Valle
This largely imaginative historical reconstruction is clearly intended to make a polemical point. Not only is the Jewish interpretation of Sukkot the most accurate, but the Christians themselves used to acknowledge this. They only stopped doing so for historical reasons. As a result of divine punishment, the original holy ceremony became corrupted. This was part of an effort to conceal the divine wrath that prevented them from properly preserving the biblical rite. It is no coincidence that this mirrors exactly the way many Christian polemicists depicted the Jewish situation, arguing that punishment and exile had corrupted Jewish religious traditions. It also refers to how difficult it was to acquire palm branches in Italy, a fact that was used when questioning the relevance of this rite, as Vitali noted. According to Rappa’s account, these trees are not found in Christian lands because the Christian owners of the land are unworthy of them. Yet, nevertheless, the Jews manage to maintain the sacred tradition. Rappa does not seem to want to respond directly to the Christian arguments, as Basilea and Segre (see below) did. Rather, his work is intended to entertain Jews while showing (Hebrew readers) that both sides could play this game of ridicule.At first, their priests would take the four species on the first day of Sukkot while entering and exiting the church dressed in their impure clothes. The crowd would do so at home. When the number of sinners among them grew so great, the Lord punished them so that the land could not grow the species. Then they changed the tradition and used olive branches instead…
This is also a fitting description of the vast library of Protestant scholarship attacking both Catholics and Jews, some of which Valle probably encountered in his many years of study in the Collegio Veneto Artista, where he studied among a few other Jews and many other non-Catholics who could not study in the main college due to their refusal to take a Catholic oath (Carlebach 2001). Kabbalistic views of Christianity are almost as old as Kabbalah itself (Haskell 2016). However, Valle’s decision to engage in an effort to systematically decode many Christian rites using Kabbalistic concepts is innovative and particularly relevant to the notion of hybridity suggested by Burke, and to Grafton’s point regarding the role comparison played in early modern religious scholarship. Valle’s acknowledgement that there existed some sort of remote common ground between the traditions served as an interpretive key. It allowed him to reveal the righteousness of Judaism through the impurity of Christianity, thus advancing learned and nuanced polemical blasphemy in the style of the “polemical ethnography” common at the time.Protestant reformers described Catholic practices as pre-Christian survivals, comparing the cult of the Virgin Mary to the cult of Venus, for instance, and describing the saints as the successors of the pagan gods and heroes, taking over their functions of curing illness and protecting from danger. St George, for example, was identified as a new Perseus, St Christopher as a second Polyphemus. Both the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic or Counter Reformation may be regarded as, among other things, movements of de-hybridization or counter-hybridization…
7. ‘This Is in Vain’: Yehoshua Segre and the Buds of Toleration?
He [Morosini] argues that the rabbis falsely introduced the different Shofar voices and replaced the simple one with others with no justifications for these changes. What difference does it make if the sound is tou tuo or to to to?
Contrary to the other polemical approaches discussed above, Segre doubts the utility of this kind of discourse. He does not wish to explain, as Basilea does, nor does he seek to highlight Christian oddities, the path taken by Rappa. Instead, he notes that religious ceremonies have an apparently arbitrary aspect, which there is no point in debating. He further clarifies this point by including an additional anecdote:We need not answer these questions, as these are not of the fundamentals of faith but rather the rules or instruments of faith. If he would like us to ask about the Christian rules, we would have much to say. We do not have to inform him of our secrets or Talmudic explanations, which he and all other Christians possessed by impure forces cannot understand.
And I should tell the story about one priest that used a stick to ridicule the shaking of our lulav. After he finished, I took the same stick and imitated the maneuvers they do in the Rogazioni [days of fast and prayers for protection said by western Christians]. Then, I told him that every religion has its particular beliefs. As they believe that the carrying of their statue will bless the fields and turn away bad climate, we believe the lulav does the same. And each mocks the other because he does it differently than him. Really, this is all vanity.
8. “As the Ancients Have Done”: Rafael Frizzi and the Scienza Nuova
These lines express a radical view. Historically aware Kabbalists, such as Vitali, used the authority of the midrash to briefly compare between the lulav and the Roman fasces, only to explain immediately the futility of the Roman rite and the Jewish spiritual victory over evil forces symbolized by the lulav. Frizzi, however, who does not cite the midrash, closely compares the religious ceremonies in their entirety—not only the use of palm branches. Furthermore, he presents the rite through the lens of universal ideas such as providence and the philosophical meaning of the number seven, with no trace of Jewish religious superiority. As scholars have noted, notable cultural changes occurred from the mid-eighteenth century onwards among learned circles in Italy.67 These included laying the foundations for civil reforms alongside growing interest in a “secularized” worldview and deep interest in religious history, perhaps most commonly identified with Giambatista Vico’s Scienza Nuova).68In Spencer you can read that the ancients, and especially their elders, would take the lulav and circle an ark during their holidays, just as our nation does. The meaning of this commandment is to announce that the Lord’s providence extends over all objects in this world, both the more and the less valuable … it is known that circling around and around in matters of holiness is meant to signify infinity…and among ancient nations such as the Greeks and Egyptians and Romans they used to circle their foul temples at their holidays, as you know. They would circle seven times, because the number seven is important in matters of holiness.66
Conflicts of Interest
On anti–Jewish writing in circles of early modern Venetian humanists see: (Bowd 2016).
As a resident of Padua during the first decade of the sixteenth century, it is highly possible that he was familiar with the work of Caelius Rhodiginus, who was not only interested in Jewish rites but was among the first to discuss the affinity between Sukkot and the bacchanalia, see below page 4.
On this literature see (Berger 2019).
See note 5 above.
For a volume celebrating his novel application of modern scholarly methods to Jewish sources, see (Bonfil et al. 2004).
For a similar suggestion in more general terms, see (Deutsch 2012, pp. 16–18).
Matthew 21:9, 15; Mark 11:9–10; John 12:13.
See, for example, Opuscoli di autori siciliani 17 (1776). Palermo: Rappeti, pp. 136–142; (Carmeli 1750).
Ibid., p. 204: “in modo che pare piuttosto atto di scherma”.
Ibid., p. 205.
On Protestant books in Venice, see (Grendler 1975).
I refer to the first Latin edition: (Buxtorf 1604).
See: y. Sukkah 3:4, אותו היום מקיפין את המזבח שבע פעמים. א′ר אחא זכר ליריחו
On this passage by Tacitus and Luzzato’s reference to it, see (Luzzatto 2019).
Isaac Cardoso, Las Excelencias de los Hebreos, Amsterdam 1679, pp. 338–39.
More on this point see, (Yerushalmi 1971).
On this work and its significance, see (Fishman 1997).
This extract from Jacob Frank’s The Words of the Lord was translated from Polish into Hebrew by Fanya Shalom and edited by Rachel Elior as part of a document published online in 1997. See: https://pluto.mscc.huji.ac.il/~mselio/haadon-ed-5.pdf (accessed on 27 April 2021)
Another possible interpertaion is that Frank hinted to the ‘lulav as a weapon’ interpertaion, and saw in the playful lulav shaking by the chilrdern a sign for a future jewish engagmant with military power. On these aspects of Frankisem see: (Maciejko 2011, pp. 158–61, 230–45).
It is interesting to note that at the beginning of the sermon, Vitali identifies the lulav with the Roman victory parade, but he later adds three more explanations, all relying on Kabbalah, which he seems to find much more satisfying. Yet, Vitali makes it clear that the victory parade is not a religious act, and of course he does not suggest that the lulav was imported from the Roman tradition. See ibid., pp. 191–94.
See the manuscript of Bassan’s sermons, Bodleian 991, pp. 164–78.
For a full bibliography of his works and academic discussion of him, see (Salah 2007)
For a general description of Basilea’s work, see (Guetta 2014, pp. 192–204).
For a different reading of Basilea’s work, see (Ruderman 1995)
Sefer ’Emunat chakhamim (Mantua, 1730), 38a–40b.
For a full bibliography of his works and scholarship regarding him, see (Salah 2007, p. 419).
Daniel Lasker identified the author and published an edition of the work. See (Lasker 1996). I refer to the manuscript found in the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York (NY JTS 2227).
JTS 2227, 48–57, 80a–80b.
For a full bibliography of his works and scholarship about him, see (Salah 2007, p. 536).
It is interesting to note that he also had personal connections with Vitali.
On early connections between the Jewish text and the Christian holiday, see (Yuval 1996).
Ibid., pp. 9–11.
Ibid., p. 116.
Christians often accused Jews of mimicking the passion displays via ceremonies that involved sheep and goats. This may provide a wider context for this literary choice. See (Zacour 1990).
Ibid., pp. 50–52, 70–82.
Ibid., p. 82.
On the matter see (Garb 2011).
For a study of these different approches see: (Shoham-Steiner 2010).
Ibid., p. 53.
Ibid. See also b. Rosh HaShanah, 17a.
Ibid., pp. 58–61.
Ibid., p. 133.
Valle, commentary on Nehemiah, (Jerusalem: Hamesorah, 2010) p. 2 .
Valle, ‘Avodat haQodesh (Jerusalem: HaMesora, 1993), pp. 257–60 and compare: Valle, Commentary on Proverbs (Jerusalem: HaMesora, 2010), pp. 152–54.
It is interesting to note that the word ‘bocolo’ (rather than the more general ‘rosa’) was used by Venetians to describe the roses they used to give out on the 25th of April, the ‘Festa del Bocolo’ and the day of Marco, the saint of Venice. His usage of this christianized term while interpreting a verse from the song of songs,(2:1, “I am a rose of Sharon, a lily of the valleys”), shows yet again the entanglement of the two communities expressed even during mutual criticism. See: (Muir 1981).
Ibid., p. 593.
This work was published and studied in depth by David Malkiel. See (Malkiel 2004).
Ibid, pp. 93–96.
Its first three volumes were printed in 1815 yet also contain material from his university years. The three remaining volumes were only printed in 1878.
On this work and some of the sources it uses, see (Dubin 1992)
First edition John Spencer, De legibus Hebraeorum ritualibus … Editio secunda (The Hague, 1685). References here are to the Tubingen 1732 edition.
Ibid., pp. 50–58.
Spencer, De legibus Hebraeorum, 1111–1119.
(Frizzi 1873) (As part of the third volume, this quote was available in print already in 1815).
See, for example, (Ferrone 1995).
For an account of the matter see (Mali 2002).
(Gay 1970). See in particular vol. 1.
For a general account of refiguring Judaism in late modernity, see (Batnitzky 2011). However, the Italian case diverges from her general scheme.
- Avishur, Yitzhak. 1998. In Praise of Maimonides: Folktales in Judaeo-Arabic and Hebrew from the Near East and North Africa. Jerusalem: Magnes Press. [Google Scholar]
- Batnitzky, Leora. 2011. How Judaism Became a Religion: An Introduction to Modern Jewish Thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Belasco, Gershon. 1908. Pilpul al Zeman, Zemanim, Zemanehem. London. [Google Scholar]
- Benayahu, Meir. 1980. R. Shimshon Morpurgo’s Polemic against Benetelli. Alei Sefer: Studies in Bibliography and in the History of the Printed and the Digital Hebrew Book 8: 94–187. (In Hebrew). [Google Scholar]
- Benettelli, Luigi Maria. 1703. Le Saette di Gionata. Venice: Bortoli, p. 206. [Google Scholar]
- Benettelli, Luigi Maria. 1705. I dardi rabbinici infranti. Venice: Domenico Lovisa, p. 236. [Google Scholar]
- Benin, Stephen D. 1993. The Footprints of God: Divine Accommodation in Jewish and Christian Thought. SUNY Series in Judaica: Hermeneutics, Mysticism, and Religion; Albany: State University of New York Press. [Google Scholar]
- Bergantini, Gian Pietro. 1745. Voci Italiane. Venice: Pietro Bassaglia, p. 143. [Google Scholar]
- Berger, David. 2019. Introduction to the Jewish-Christian Debate in the High Middle Ages: A Critical Edition of the Nizzahon Vetus with an Introduction, Translation, and Commentary. In Persecution, Polemic, and Dialogue: Essays in Jewish-Christian Relations. Edited by David Berger. Boston: Academic Studies Press. [Google Scholar]
- Bietenholz, Peter G., and Thomas B. Deutscher. 2003. Contemporaries of Erasmus: A Biographical Register of the Renaissance and Reformation. 3 vols. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, vol. 3, pp. 155–56. [Google Scholar]
- Bonfil, Robert, Isaac Gottlieb, and Hannah Kasher, eds. 2004. Samuel David Luzzatto: The Bi-Centennial of His Birth. Jerusalem: Magnes. [Google Scholar]
- Bowd, Stephen. 2016. Civic Piety and Patriotism: Patrician Humanists and Jews in Venice and Its Empire. Renaissance Quarterly 69: 1257–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bregoli, Francesca. 2017. The Jews of Italy (1650–1815). In The Cambridge History of Judaism. Edited by Jonathan Karp and Adam Sutcliffe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, vol. 7, pp. 864–69. [Google Scholar]
- Burke, Peter. 2009. Cultural Hybridity. Cambridge: Polity Press, p. 210. [Google Scholar]
- Burnett, Stephen G. 1994. Distorted Mirrors: Antonius Margaritha, Johann Buxtorf and Christian Ethnographies of the Jews. The Sixteenth Century Journal 25: 275–87. [Google Scholar]
- Buxtorf, Johannes. 1604. De Synagoga Judaica. Hanau: Guilielmi Antonii, pp. 454–58. [Google Scholar]
- Capsali, Eliyahu. 1975. Seder ’Eliyahu Zuta. Edited by Aryeh Shmuelevitz, Shlomo Simonson and Meir Benayahu. 3 vols. Jerusalem: Ben Zvi Institute, vol. 1, p. 164. [Google Scholar]
- Carlebach, Elisheva. 2001. Divided Souls: Converts from Judaism in Germany, 1500–1750. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp. 170–200. [Google Scholar]
- Carmeli, Michel Angelo. 1750. Storia di Varj Costumi Sacri e Profani Dagli Antichi. 2 vols. Padova: Giovanni Manfrè, vol. 2, pp. 22–24. [Google Scholar]
- Cohen, Jeremy. 1999. Living Letters of the Law: Ideas of the Jew in Medieval Christianity. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 124–40. [Google Scholar]
- Cohen, Jeremy. 2013. Talmud and Talmudists in Solomon ibn Verga’s Shevet Yehudah. In Studies in Jewish History Presented to Joseph Hacker. Edited by Yaron Ben-Naeh, Jeremy Cohen, Moshe Idel and Yosef Kaplan. Jerusalem: Zalman Shazar Center, pp. 285–310. (In Hebrew) [Google Scholar]
- Cohen, Mark R. 1972. Leone Da Modena’s Riti: A Seventeenth-Century Plea for Social Toleration of Jews. Jewish Social Studies 34: 287–321. [Google Scholar]
- Corazzol, Giacomo. 2012. On the Sources of Elijah Capsali’s Chronicle of the ‘Kings’ of Venice. Mediterranean Historical Review 27: 151–60. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Da Costa, Uriel. 1993. Examination of Pharisaic Traditions. Leiden: Brill, pp. 294–96. [Google Scholar]
- Darnton, Robert. 1984. The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History. New York: Basic Books, pp. 107–23. [Google Scholar]
- Davies, Surekha. 2016. Renaissance Ethnography and the Invention of the Human: New Worlds, Maps and Monsters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Deutsch, Yaacov. 2017. The Reception History of Ethnographic Literature about the Jews. In Revealing the Secrets of the Jews: Johannes Pfefferkorn and Christian Writings about Jewish Life and Literature in Early Modern Europe. Edited by Jonathan Adams and Cordelia Heß. Berlin: de Gruyter, pp. 211–16. [Google Scholar]
- Deutsch, Yakov. 2012. Judaism in Christian Eyes: Ethnographic Descriptions of Jews and Judaism in Early Modern Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Dubin, Lois C. 1992. The Sages as Philosophes: Enlightenment and Aggadah in Northern Italy. In “Open Thou Mine Eyes”: Essays on Aggadah and Judaica Presented to Rabbi William G. Braude on His Eightieth Birthday and Dedicated to His Memory. Edited by Herman Blumberg, Benjamin Braude, William G. Braude and Bernard H. Mehlman. Hoboken: KTAV Publishing House, pp. 61–77. [Google Scholar]
- Dubin, Lois C. 2012. Medicine as Enlightenment Cure: Benedetto Frizzi, Physician to Eighteenth-century Italian Jewish Society. Jewish History 26: 201–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dubin, Lois. 1999. The Port Jews of Habsburg Trieste: Absolutist Politics and Enlightenment Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 178–86. [Google Scholar]
- Dueck, Daniela. 2008. The Feast of Tabernacles and the Cult of Dionysus: A Cross-Cultural Dialogue. Zion 73: 38–119. (In Hebrew). [Google Scholar]
- Dunkelgrün, Theodor. 2017. The Christian Study of Judaism in Early Modern Europe. In The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 7, The Early Modern World, 1500–1815. Edited by Jonathan Karp and Adam Sutcliffe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 316–48. [Google Scholar]
- Facchini, Christiana. 2019. Jesus the Pharisee: Leon Modena, the Historical Jesus, and Renaissance Venice. Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 17: 81–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ferrone, Vincenzo. 1995. The Intellectual Roots of the Italian Enlightenment: Newtonian Science, Religion, and Politics in the Early Eighteenth Century. Translated by Sue Brotherton. Atlantic Highlands: Humanity Books. [Google Scholar]
- Fishman, Talya. 1997. Shaking the Pillars of Exile: “Voice of a Fool”, an Early Modern Jewish Critique of Rabbinic Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Fishman, Talya. 2003. Changing Early Modern Jewish Discourse about Christianity: The Efforts of Rabbi Leon Modena. In The Lion Shall Roar. Edited by D. Malkiel. Jerusalem: Magnes, pp. 159–94. [Google Scholar]
- Frizzi, Benetto. Dissertazioni di Polizia Medica sul Pentateuco. Pavia: Pietro Galeazzi, Cremona: Lorenzo Manini, 1787–1790.
- Frizzi, Benyamin Refael. 1873. Petach ‘Einayim. 6 vols. Livorno: Israel Kushta, vol. 3, p. 67a. [Google Scholar]
- Garb, Jonathan. 2011. A Renewed Study of the Self-image of R. Moshe David Valle, as Reflected in his Biblical Exegesis. Tarbiz 79: 265–306. (In Hebrew). [Google Scholar]
- Garzoni, Tommaso. 1605. La Piazza Universale. Venice: Roberto Meghetti. First published 1586. [Google Scholar]
- Gay, Peter. 1970. The Enlightenment: An Interpretation. 2 vols. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. [Google Scholar]
- Grafton, Anthony. 2016. Christianity’s Jewish Origins Rediscovered: The Roles of Comparison in Early Modern Ecclesiastical Scholarship. Erudition and the Republic of Letters 1: 13–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Grafton, Anthony. 2019. Comparisons Compared: A Study in the Early Modern Roots of Cultural History. In Regimes of Comparatism: Frameworks of Comparison in History, Religion and Anthropology. Edited by Renaud Gagné, Simon Goldhill and Geoffrey E.R. Lloyd. Leiden: Brill, pp. 18–48. [Google Scholar]
- Grafton, Anthony, and Joanna Weinberg. 2011. “I Have Always Loved the Holy Tongue”: Isaac Casaubon, the Jews, and a Forgotten Chapter in Renaissance Scholarship. Cambridge and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Grendler, Paul F. 1975. The Roman Inquisition and the Venetian Press, 1540–605. The Journal of Modern History 47: 48–65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Guetta, Alessandro. 2014. Leone Modena’s Magen we-cherev as an Anti-Catholic Apologia. In Italian Jewry in the Early Modern Era. Edited by Alessandro Guetta. Boston: Academic Studies Press, pp. 134–52. [Google Scholar]
- Ha-Cohen, Aviad. 2004. Modern Rabbinical Conceptions of Christians and Christianity: From Rabbi Kook to Rabbi Ovadiah Yosef. Mahanaim: A Review for Jewish Thought and Culture 15: 89–124. (In Hebrew). [Google Scholar]
- Hardy, Nicolas, and Dimitri Levitin, eds. 2019. Confessionalisation and Erudition in Early Modern Europe: An Episode in the History of the Humanities. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Haskell, Ellen Davina. 2016. Mystical Resistance: Uncovering the Zohar’s Conversations with Christianity. New York: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Hodgen, Margaret T. 1998. Early Anthropology in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [Google Scholar]
- Horbury, William. 1993. Judah Briel and Seventeenth-Century Jewish Anti-Christian Polemic in Italy. JSQ 1: 171–92. [Google Scholar]
- Horbury, William. 2016. Petrus Galatinus and Jean Thenaud on the Talmud and the Toledot Yeshu. In Jewish Books and their Readers. Edited by Scott Mandelbrote and Joanna Weinberg. Leiden: Brill, pp. 123–50. [Google Scholar]
- Horowitz, Elliott. 2006. Reckless Rites: Purim and the Legacy of Jewish Violence. Princeton: Oxford: Princeton University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Horwoitz, Elnatan. 2015. Bni ha-Chai- the Redemption of Israel in Light of the Christian Issue. Hebron: Emek Hebron press. (In Hebrew) [Google Scholar]
- Hospinianus, Rodolphus. 1598. Historia Sacramentaria. Zurich: Tiguri, p. 24. [Google Scholar]
- Hsia, Ronnie Po-chia. 1994. Christian Ethnographies of Jews in Early Modern Germany. In The Expulsion of the Jews: 1492 and After. Edited by Raymond B. Waddington and A. H. Williamson. New York: Garland, pp. 223–35. [Google Scholar]
- Johanan, Karma Ben. 2016. Wreaking Judgment on Mount Esau: Christianity in R. Kook’s Thought. Jewish Quarterly Review 106: 76–100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kaplan, Benjamin J. 2010. Divided by Faith: Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, pp. 1–14. [Google Scholar]
- Kircher, Athanasius. 1650. Obeliscus Pamphilius. Rome: Ludovico Grignani, pp. 362–64. [Google Scholar]
- Kirkpatrick, Jonathan. 2014. The Jews and their God of Wine. ARG 15: 167–86. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kogan, Michael S. 2008. Opening the Covenant: A Jewish Theology of Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 80–84. [Google Scholar]
- Korn, Eugene. 2012. Rethinking Christianity: Rabbinic Positions and Possibilities. In Jewish Theology and World Religions. Edited by A. Goshen-Gottstein and E. Korn. Oxford: The Littman Library, pp. 189–216. [Google Scholar]
- Lasker, Daniel. 1994. Anti-Christian Polemics in Eighteenth-Century Italy. In Proceedings of the Eleventh World Congress of Jewish Studies. Division B: The History of the Jewish People: From the Second Temple Period to Modern Times. 3 vols. Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, vol. 1, pp. 185–92. (In Hebrew) [Google Scholar]
- Lasker, Daniel. 1996. ‘Sefer Herev Pifiyyot’ of Saul ben Joseph Merari (?), An Italian Jewish Anti-Christian Polemic of the Eighteenth Century. Italia 12: 7–35, (Hebrew section). [Google Scholar]
- Lasker, Daniel. 2006. Jewish Anti-Christian Polemics in the Early Modern Period: Change or Continuity? In Tradition, Heterodoxy and Religious Culture: Judaism and Christianity in the Early Modern Period. Edited by Chanita Goodblatt and Howard Kreisel. Beer Sheva: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press, pp. 469–88. [Google Scholar]
- Levitin, Dmitri. 2012. From Sacred History to the History of Religion: Paganism, Judaism, and Christianity in European Historiography from Reformation to ‘Enlightenment’. Historical Journal 55: 1117–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Levitin, Dmitri. 2013. John Spencer’s ‘De Legibus Hebraeorum’ (1683–1685) and ‘Enlightened’ Sacred History: A New Interpretation. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 76: 49–92. [Google Scholar]
- Luciano, Allegra. 1993. A Model of Jewish Devolution: Turin in the Eighteenth Century. Jewish History 7: 29–58. [Google Scholar]
- Luzzatto, Simone. 2019. Discourse on the State of the Jews. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter, p. 167. [Google Scholar]
- Maciejko, Pawel. 2011. The Mixed Multitude: Jacob Frank and the Frankist Movement, 1755–1816. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [Google Scholar]
- Mali, Joseph. 2002. The Rehabilitation of Myth: Vico’s “New Science”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 20–42. [Google Scholar]
- Malkiel, David. 2004. The Jewish Christian Debate on the Eve of Modernity. Jerusalem: Ben Zion Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History. (In Hebrew) [Google Scholar]
- Malkiel, David. 2005. The Jewish-Christian Debate on the Eve of Modernity: Joshua Segre of Scandiano and his Asham Talui. Revue des Etudes Juives 164: 169–98. [Google Scholar]
- Mampieri, Martina. 2016. The Jews and Their Doubts: Anti-Jewish Polemics in the Fascicolo delle vanità giudaiche (1583) by Antonino Stabili. Yearbook of the Maimonides Centre for Advanced Studies 1: 59–75. [Google Scholar]
- Margi, Domenico. 1650. Notizia de’ Vocaboli Ecclesiastici. Rome: Paolo Baglioni, p. 467. [Google Scholar]
- Medici, Paulo. 1736. Riti e Costúmi degli ebrei. Firenze: Pietro Gaetano, pp. 202–3. [Google Scholar]
- Menochio, Stefano. 1692. Stuore del Padre Gio. 3 vols. Rome: Felice Cesaretti, vol. 1, p. 326. [Google Scholar]
- Morosini, Giulio. 1683. Via della fede mostrata a’gli ebrei. Rome: Sacra Cong, p. 741. [Google Scholar]
- Muhlhause, Yom-Tov Lipmann ben Solomon. 1644. Sefer Nitsachon. Amsterdam: Shlomo Props, p. 62. [Google Scholar]
- Muir, Edward. 1981. Civic Ritual in Renaissance Venice. Princton: Princeton University Press, pp. 84–93. [Google Scholar]
- Nagen (Genack), Yakov. 2002. The Lulav as Korban in Rabbinical Halakhah. Daat: A Journal of Jewish Philosophy & Kabbalah 49: 5–33. [Google Scholar]
- Nothaft, Carl Philipp Emanuel. 2011. From Sukkot to Saturnalia: The Attack on Christmas in Sixteenth-Century Chronological Scholarship. JHI 72: 503–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pierce, Joanne. 1999. Holy Week and Easter in the Middle Ages. In Passover and Easter: Origin and History to Modern Times. Edited by P. F. Bradshaw and L. A. Hoffman. Notre Dame: Ind, pp. 161–85. [Google Scholar]
- Ravid, Benjamin. 1982. Contra Judaeos in Seventeenth-Century Italy: Two Responses to the Discorso of Simone Luzzatto by Melchiore Palontrotti and Giulio Morosini. AJSR 7/8: 301–51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reggio, Isaac S., ed. 1852. Beḥinat haQabbalah: Kolel Sefer Qol Sakal veSefer Sha’agat ’Aryeh. Gorizia: Joh. Bapt. Seitz, p. 50. [Google Scholar]
- Renieri, Giovanni Battista. 1682. Stati del mondo, overo tavole chronologiche, genealogiche, et historiche. Genova: Antonio Giorgio Franchelli. [Google Scholar]
- Rhodiginus, Caelius. 1516. Antiquarum Lectionum. Venice: Aldine, p. 161. [Google Scholar]
- Ruderman, David B. 1995. Jewish Thought and Scientific Discovery in Early Modern Europe. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp. 213–28. [Google Scholar]
- Rustow, Marina. 2007. Karaites Real and Imagined: Three Cases of Jewish Heresy. Past & Present 197: 35–74. [Google Scholar]
- Salah, Asher. 2007. La République des Lettres: Rabbins, écrivains et médecins juifs en Italie au XVIIIe siècle. Leiden: Brill, pp. 70–73. [Google Scholar]
- Scott, James M. 2015. Bacchius Iudaeus: A Denarius Commemorating Pompey’s Victory over Judea. Novum Testamentum et Orbis Antiquus/Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments 104. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. [Google Scholar]
- Shmuelevitz, Aryeh. 1978. Capsali as a Source for Ottoman History, 1450–1523. International Journal of Middle East Studies 9: 339–44. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shoham-Steiner, Ephraim. 2010. Jews and Healing at Medieval Saints’ Shrines: Participation, Polemics, and Shared Cultures. The Harvard Theological Review 103: 111–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shyovitz, David. 2015. Beauty and the Bestiary: Animals, Wonder, and Polemic in Medieval Ashkenaz. In The Jewish-Christian Encounter in Medieval Preaching. Edited by Jonathan Adams and Jussi Hanska. London: Routledge, pp. 215–39. [Google Scholar]
- Sperber, David. 1999. “The Commandment ‘And You Shall Take unto Yourselves …” on the Sukkot Holiday and Its Development. Sidra: A Journal for the Study of Rabbinic Literature 15: 167–79. [Google Scholar]
- Stolzenberg, Daniel. 2004. Four Trees, Some Amulets, and the Seventy-two Names of God. In The Last Man Who Knew Everything. Edited by Paula Findelin. New York and London: Routledge, pp. pp. 149–69, at 149. [Google Scholar]
- Talon, Nicolo. 1649. La Storia Santa. Libro quinto. Bolonia: Carlo Zenero, p. 669. [Google Scholar]
- Tau, Zvi. 2007. Lemunat Itenu’. Jerusalem: Chossen Yeshuot, vol. 3, pp. pp. 134–38, 200–2. [Google Scholar]
- Valle, Moshe David. 1998. Sefer haLiqqutim. Jerusalem: Pitchei Megadim, vol. 1, pp. 75–92. [Google Scholar]
- Veltwyck, Gerard. 1539. Shvilei Tohu—Itinera Deserti, de Judaicis Disciplinis et Earum Vanitate. Venice: Daniel Bomberg, pp. 41–43. [Google Scholar]
- Vitali, Benjamin. 1727. Gevul Binyamin. 3 vols. Amsterdam: Shlomo Props, vol. 2, p. 193a. [Google Scholar]
- Yerushalmi, Yosef Hayim. 1971. From Spanish Court to Italian Ghetto: Isaac Cardoso: A Study in Seventeenth-Century Marranism and Jewish Apologetics. Seattle and London: Washington University Press, pp. 290–97. [Google Scholar]
- Yuval, Israel Jacob. 1996. The Haggadah of Passover and Easter. Tarbiz 65: 5–28. (In Hebrew). [Google Scholar]
- Yuval, Israel Yakov. 2006. Two Nations in Your Womb: Perceptions of Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Translated by Barbara Harshav, and Jonathan Chipman. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, pp. 161–90. [Google Scholar]
- Zacour, Norman P. 1990. Jews and Saracens in the Consilia of Oldradus de Ponte. Toronto: Pontifical Institute Studies and Texts, p. 74. [Google Scholar]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).