Interreligious Dialogue in Public Service Broadcasting. A Case Study in Catalonia (Spain)
- Catholic: Catholic Church, Catholic/s/, Bishopric and Pope Francis
- Evangelical: Evangelical church, Evangelicals, Baptism, Baptist/s, Pentecostals, Lutherans, Anglicans
- Muslim: Islam, Islamist, Muslim(s), Mosque, Islamism
- Christian Witnesses of Jah (2): Jehovah, Christian Witnesses of Jah
- Buddhism: Buddhist/s, Buddhism, Buddhist monk
- Orthodox: Orthodox church, Coptic Christians, Orthodox Christians, Orthodox priest, Orthodox
- Hinduism: Hinduism, Hindu religion, Hinduist
- Adventist: Adventist(s), Adventist church
- Mormonism: Mormon/s
- Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- Sikhism: Sikh, Sikhism
- Taoism: Taoism, Taoist
- Judaism: Jew/s, Judaism
- Bahaism: Bahá’í Faith, Bahaism
- Atheism: Atheist/s, Atheism, Agnostic
3.1. General Characteristics of the Pluri-Religious Audiovisual Pieces Analysed
3.2. Interreligious Dialogue in Audiovisual Narrative
3.2.1. Narratives Where the Catholic Religion Is Present
- All religions offer a path towards dialogue through spirituality. In the case of the Catholic religion, it is argued that this is evident from God’s capacity to forgive. For example, in one of the pieces analysed, the protagonist is a child who tells the Pope about his fear of where his father will be after his death, as the child knows that his father was an atheist. The Pope uses this type of argument in his response.
- Activities that encourage intercultural exchange, such as open days or ecumenical choir training, are recommended. There is also the defence of religious tourism and experiential tourism, with, for example, the promotion of visits to historical sites and places or the possibility of spending the night in monasteries.
- The importance of religious leaders acting as models of tolerance towards other beliefs. For example, one of the stories is about the Pope’s trip to Sweden to join the 500th anniversary of Luther’s Reformation.
- The need to have a greater knowledge of all religions in order, for example, to be more aware of the historical ties that unite us.
- From the point of view of an atheistic citizenry, there is some reticence and mistrust towards the behaviour of the Catholic Church. Thus, for example, three of the pieces discuss the difficulty of being an atheist in a country with strong Catholic roots, and in two other pieces analysed, they question the fact that the working calendar is determined by religious celebrations in a secular country like Spain.
- There is criticism from other religions that the Catholic Church holds a privileged position.
- Occasionally, some of the pieces refer to internal conflicts, for example divisions of opinion regarding celibacy, the role of women, or reported cases of paedophilia.
3.2.2. Narratives Where the Muslim Religion Is Present
- The need to organize activities that encourage interaction. However, in the material analysed, only one mention has been made of an organization (AUDIR, which is the Association of Friends of UNESCO for Interreligious and Inter-convictional Dialogue).
- The fact that some Catholic priests are open to dialogue and making contact is expressly stated as something positive. This appears in one of the pieces analysed on the occasion of a priest’s visit to a newly opened mosque.
- The usefulness of emphasising the historical–cultural aspects that bring together the different beliefs is highlighted.
- Jihadism should be seen as a problem of society as a whole, and the Muslim community should therefore also be considered as victims of it.
- One should take into account the problem of Muslim women, as they are doubly affected, both as women and as Muslims. Specifically, this question appears in three pieces. In the first two, there is a debate on the possibility of the existence of a truly feminist Islam. The first is an interview with Dolors Bramon, a Catalan expert on the Arab world and Islam. In the dialogue she is asked, for example, about what exactly the Koran says about a woman’s body. Bramon responds by explaining that the West is obsessively concerned about the veil and she is openly against the use of this garment. Bramon regards Islam as egalitarian, but believes Muslims are not. The second is a news account featuring Sherin Khankan, the woman who leads one of the prayers in a mosque in Copenhagen (Denmark). In the report, Khankan explains that she strives to champion a feminist Islam. The interview is possible thanks to the fact that she has been invited to give a talk in Barcelona. In the last piece, the protagonist is Ikram Ouali, a Muslim woman married to a Sikh. Ikram describes the difficulties she has in interacting with her husband’s family, which does not accept interfaith marriages. Ikram Ouali explains that she has just applied for the right of asylum in Catalonia.
3.2.3. Narratives Where Atheism Is Present
Conflicts of Interest
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The Corporació Catalana de Mitjans Audiovisuals (CCMA) is a public organization that manages the audio-visual media (TV and radio stations) of the Generalitat de Catalunya. With regard to TV stations, TV3 is the most important, and it offers a generalist form of programming. The others are themed channels: Canal 33 is a cultural channel, Canal 3/24 is an all-news channel, and Club Super 3 is geared towards children.
|Reference||Date of Broadcast||Duration||Original Programme/Genre||Title|
|91||31/03/2018||00:49:15||FAQs (TV3)—Infotainment||Can Holy Week be celebrated in a non-denominational state?|
|93||22/11/2018||00:58:17||World 324 (TV3)—Information||Churches and power|
|98||30/10/2016||00:01:03||TN Vespre (The Evening News show) (TV3)—Information||Pope Francis travels to Sweden to bring together Catholics and Lutherans|
|109||15/11/2018||00:27:23||Els Matins (The Morning Show) (TV3)—Infotainment||Debate on the existence of God with a monk and an agnostic woman|
|110||4/11/2018||00:02:43||TN Vespre (The Evening News Show) (TV3)—Information||4040 agnostics spend the weekend with the monks of Montserrat|
|111||16/04/2018||00:01:18||Noticies 3/24 (3/24)—News Information||The pope comforts a child who is worried that his late father (atheist) will not be in heaven|
|112||21/12/2018||00:09:43||When the Martians arrive (TV3)—Infotainment||Christmas: traditions and contradictions|
|114||10/06/2018||00:04:21||Signes del temps (Signs of the times) (TV3)—Specialised news||2260 religious and lay students study at the Catalan Faculty of Theology|
|11||27/09/2018||00:33:13||Els matins (The Morning Show) (TV3)—Infotainment||Who owns the churches? Controversies about ownership of real estate|
|15||21/01/2018||00:29:25||Signes del temps (Signs of the times) (TV3) Specialised news||Interview with Miquel Calsina, rector of seven parishes in Baix Empordà and media delegate of the bishopric|
|22||13/03/2018||00:20:47||Els Matins (The Morning Show) (TV3)—Infotainment||The most important events of the five years of Pope Francis’ papacy|
|26||20/11/2018||00:03:20||Polònia (TV3)—Political Humour-Satire||The seat of Christ: The Nativity Scene in Barcelona this year leaves no one unmoved|
|Reference||Date of Broadcast||Duration||Original Programme||Title|
|94||22/03/2016||00:01:28||TN Vespre (The Evening News Show) (TV3)—Information||Profile of young western jihadists|
|100||09/05/2018||00:01:17||TN Vespre (The Evening News Show) (TV3)—Information||The Myanmar army admits to having massacred a group of Rohingya|
|101||19/08/2018||00:02:04||TN Migdia (The Midday News Show) (TV3)—Information||Facebook in Myanmar, “decisive” in hate speech against Rohingya|
|102||05/04/2018||00:01:44||TN Migdia (The Midday News Show) (TV3)—Information||Unwanted baby boom in the Rohingya refugee camps|
|104||25/08/2018||00:02:40||TN Migdia (The Midday News Show) (TV3)—Information||A year of crisis for the Rohingya|
|108||21/02/2015||00:06:20||Tot un món (One entire world) (TV3)—Information||When Ikram, a Muslim, and Santok, an Indian and a Sikh, fell in love there was much suffering…|
|113||15/02/2015||00:01:23||TN Migdia (The Midday News Show) (TV3)—Information||The controversy in the US over the murder of three Muslims by an atheist|
|42||12/12/2018||00:01:42||TN Migdia (The Midday News Show) (TV3)—Information||The man who attacked and killed three people at the Christmas market is captured in Strasbourg|
|43||10/11/2018||00:17:47||FAQs (TV3)—Infotainment||Dolors Bramon: “Islam is egalitarian, but Muslims aren’t.”|
|46||18/03/2018||00:02:01||TN Migdia (The Midday News Show) (TV3)—Information||The feminist Islam of an imam|
|50||16/02/2018||00:26:32||Els Matins (The Morning Show) (TV3)—Infotainment||Six months after the Barcelona and Cambrils terrorist attacks|
|55||15/07/2018||00:42:02||30 Minuts—(TV3)—Information||A mosque next door|
|57||27/04/2018||00:01:28||TN Vespre (The Evening News Show) (TV3)—Information||The mosque on Japan Street is having an inauguration party|
|58||14/03/2018||00:01:51||TN Boroughs (TV3)—Information||The Nou Barris mosque is opening its doors with daily gatherings of far-right militants|
|Reference||Date of Broadcast||Duration||Original Programme||Title|
|95||30/01/2018||00:54:07||Sense Ficció (TV3)—Information||This is the story of Dory Sontheimer, a Catalan pharmacist of German origin|
|106||03/04/2015||01:05:28||Sense Ficció (TV3)—Information||God with an accent|
|107||12/04/2018||00:06:47||Katalanoski (TV3)—Infotainment||In Washington, we visited the Ohr Kodesh Synagogue to meet Matt Adler|
|75||16/05/2018||00:01:46||TN Migdia (The Midday News Show) (TV3)—Information||Lluís Bassat, publicist and writer, recalls the creation of the State of Israel as an achievement by Jews the world over|
|78||28/03/2018||00:01:19||TN Migdia (The Midday News Show) (TV3)—Information||New murder attributed to anti-Semitism in France|
|Reference||Date of Broadcast||Duration||Original Programme||Title|
|35||1/01/2017||00:29:18||Signes del temps (Signs of the times) (TV3)—Specialised news||Interview with Daniel Rodriguez, president of the Spanish Federation of Evangelical Religious Organisations, 500 years since the Protestant Reformation|
|38||19/01/2015||00:19:28||Signes del temps (Signs of the times) (TV3)—Specialised news||145 years of the Evangelical Church in Gracia (Barcelona)|
|92||21/10/2018||00:28:44||Signes del temps (Signs of the times) (TV3)—Specialised news||Youth and religion (conversation with a Sikh, a Muslim and a Buddhist)|
|103||05/04/2018||00:01:12||TN Vespre (The Evening News Show) (TV3)—Information||Myanmar creates settlements with Buddhist colonies|
|65||19/12/2018||00:12:05||Els Matins (The Morning Show) (TV3)—Infotainment||Augustin Paniker has published a book on Buddhism|
|82||01/02/2015||00/01/24||TN Vespre (The Evening News Show) (TV3)—Information||Sikh worship centre to open in Lloret|
|83||29/11/2017||00:28:56||L’ofici de viure—The art of living (TV3)—Infotainment||Learning to meditate|
|87||19/02/2015||00:26:54||Els Matins (The Morning Show) (TV3)—Infotainment||The Chinese community in Catalonia|
|89||07/01/2017||00:06:19||Tot un món—(One entire world) (TV3)—Information||At the border|
|90||25/05/2015||00:30:08||Tria 33 (Canal 33)—Infotainment||In-depth interview with Michel Houellebecq|
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Huertas Bailén, A. Interreligious Dialogue in Public Service Broadcasting. A Case Study in Catalonia (Spain). Religions 2020, 11, 441. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11090441
Huertas Bailén A. Interreligious Dialogue in Public Service Broadcasting. A Case Study in Catalonia (Spain). Religions. 2020; 11(9):441. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11090441Chicago/Turabian Style
Huertas Bailén, Amparo. 2020. "Interreligious Dialogue in Public Service Broadcasting. A Case Study in Catalonia (Spain)" Religions 11, no. 9: 441. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11090441