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The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL): A Five-Item Measure for Use in Epidemological Studies

Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27503, USA
Professorship of Quality of Life, Spirituality and Coping, Center of Integrative Medicine, University Witten/Herdecke, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Religions 2010, 1(1), 78-85;
Received: 21 September 2010 / Revised: 16 November 2010 / Accepted: 24 November 2010 / Published: 1 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity)
PDF [139 KB, uploaded 1 December 2010]


There is need for a brief measure of religiosity that can be included in epidemiological surveys to examine relationships between religion and health outcomes. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) is a five-item measure of religious involvement, and was developed for use in large cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies. The instrument assesses the three major dimensions of religiosity that were identified during a consensus meeting sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Those three dimensions are organizational religious activity, non-organizational religious activity, and intrinsic religiosity (or subjective religiosity). The DUREL measures each of these dimensions by a separate “subscale”, and correlations with health outcomes should be analyzed by subscale in separate models. The overall scale has high test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation = 0.91), high internal consistence (Cronbach’s alpha’s = 0.78–0.91), high convergent validity with other measures of religiosity (r’s = 0.71–0.86), and the factor structure of the DUREL has now been demonstrated and confirmed in separate samples by other independent investigative teams. The DUREL has been used in over 100 published studies conducted throughout the world and is available in 10 languages. View Full-Text
Keywords: religiosity; index; validity; DUREL religiosity; index; validity; DUREL
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Koenig, H.G.; Büssing, A. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL): A Five-Item Measure for Use in Epidemological Studies. Religions 2010, 1, 78-85.

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