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Investigation of Adequate Calibration Methods for X-ray Fluorescence Core Scanning Element Count Data: A Case Study of a Marine Sediment Piston Core from the Gulf of Alaska

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Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555, Japan
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Department of Fisheries Management, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh
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Faculty of Science, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555, Japan
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Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0819, Japan
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Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Kochi University, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502, Japan
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School of Biological Science and Engineering, Tokai University, Hokkaido 005-8601, Japan
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Faculty of Agriculture and Marine Science, Kochi University, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502, Japan
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Center for Advanced Marine Core Research, Kochi University, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502, Japan
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Graduate School of Science, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Timothy S. Collett
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050540
Received: 1 April 2021 / Revised: 5 May 2021 / Accepted: 13 May 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Geological Oceanography)
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner elemental count data are useful for high-resolution paleoceanographic studies. However, because several factors, such as changes in physical core properties, significantly affect element count intensities, the appropriate calibration of the count data is required. Besides, the existing approaches for calibration were not widely employed and require rigorous testing based on sediment variety. In this study, we analyzed high-resolution element intensity (cps) using a wet muddy marine sediment piston core that was collected from the northeast Gulf of Alaska and tested several approaches with ratio and log-ratio methods, and the reliability was evaluated by comparison with the concentrations that were measured by WD-XRF and an elemental analyzer. The results show that the lighter elements (Ti and K) exhibited a significantly weak relationship between raw counts measured by ITRAX and concentrations that were measured by the WD-XRF, indicating that some factors artificially influence ITRAX intensity data. The Cl intensity that is expressed as the water content in marine sediment increased significantly in the upper 202 cm by 42% and the top 25 cm by 73% as compared to the down-core (below 202 cm), which deviates the X-ray scattering and element-counts. The calibration of raw data through coherent/incoherent X-ray scattering ratio (CIR) and additive- and centered-log ratio reduces the offsets. The calibration by CIR performed best for Sr, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ca, K, and Br (0.56 < R2 < 0.91), and the correlation with concentration significantly increased for Ti and K of 100% and 56%, respectively. Therefore, the study suggests that the correction of raw counts through CIR is an effective approach for wet marine sediment when core physical properties have greater variability. View Full-Text
Keywords: ITRAX; X-ray fluorescence; core scanner; calibration; coherent-incoherent ratio; WD-XRF; correlation; marine sediment; Gulf of Alaska ITRAX; X-ray fluorescence; core scanner; calibration; coherent-incoherent ratio; WD-XRF; correlation; marine sediment; Gulf of Alaska
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mondal, M.N.; Horikawa, K.; Seki, O.; Nejigaki, K.; Minami, H.; Murayama, M.; Okazaki, Y. Investigation of Adequate Calibration Methods for X-ray Fluorescence Core Scanning Element Count Data: A Case Study of a Marine Sediment Piston Core from the Gulf of Alaska. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 540. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050540

AMA Style

Mondal MN, Horikawa K, Seki O, Nejigaki K, Minami H, Murayama M, Okazaki Y. Investigation of Adequate Calibration Methods for X-ray Fluorescence Core Scanning Element Count Data: A Case Study of a Marine Sediment Piston Core from the Gulf of Alaska. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(5):540. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050540

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mondal, Md N., Keiji Horikawa, Osamu Seki, Katsuya Nejigaki, Hideki Minami, Masafumi Murayama, and Yusuke Okazaki. 2021. "Investigation of Adequate Calibration Methods for X-ray Fluorescence Core Scanning Element Count Data: A Case Study of a Marine Sediment Piston Core from the Gulf of Alaska" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 5: 540. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050540

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