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Article

Estimation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Resources in the East of Malaysia

1
Razak Faculty of Technology and Informatics & UTM Ocean Thermal Energy Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 54100, Malaysia
2
Institute of Ocean Energy, Saga University, Saga, Saga City 840-8502, Japan
3
Department of Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010022
Received: 2 November 2020 / Revised: 14 December 2020 / Accepted: 15 December 2020 / Published: 28 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
The Malaysian Government has set a target of achieving 20% penetration of Renewable Energy (RE) in the energy mix spectrum by 2025. In order to get closer to the target, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) aligned with solar PV, biogas and biomass energy sources must be evaluated and comprehended. Hybrid OTEC systems consisting of energy and water production are currently under research and validation. Therefore, for the construction of a commercial OTEC plant, 1 MW or 2.5 MW, the choice of a strategic location or potential site is vital. In this paper, oceanographic data such as seawater temperature, depth, salinity and dissolved oxygen obtained from the Japan Oceanographic Data Center (JODC) for Semporna, Tawau, Kudat, Pulau Layang-Layang and Pulau Kalumpang in Sabah, Malaysia, are reported. The RE available from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) on the coast of Sabah was estimated based on the JODC data obtained. There were no remarkable differences in temperatures between the five sites, which were reported as approximately 27 °C at the surface and 7 °C at depths below 600 m. The surface salinities below 100 m at those sites were slightly lower than the deeper waters, where the salinity increased up to approximately 34.5 PSU. Dissolved oxygen data from the Pulau Kalumpang site showed a slight increment to approximately 4.7 mL/L at depth intervals below 50 m, before declining steadily to approximately 1.7 mL/L along with the depth. The temperature-salinity profiles of the Malaysian sites were congruent with those of Palau, Kumejima and Okinawa, but not with that of Fiji, where the salinity profile showed a distinct variation at the relative depth (below 200 m). Estimates of RE using two different methods were used to prove the potential of OTEC in Malaysia. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine profile; power generation; ocean thermal resource; renewable energy; Southeast Asia marine profile; power generation; ocean thermal resource; renewable energy; Southeast Asia
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MDPI and ACS Style

T. Thirugnana, S.; Jaafar, A.B.; Yasunaga, T.; Nakaoka, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Su, S. Estimation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Resources in the East of Malaysia. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010022

AMA Style

T. Thirugnana S, Jaafar AB, Yasunaga T, Nakaoka T, Ikegami Y, Su S. Estimation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Resources in the East of Malaysia. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(1):22. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010022

Chicago/Turabian Style

T. Thirugnana, Sathiabama, Abu B. Jaafar, Takeshi Yasunaga, Tsutomu Nakaoka, Yasuyuki Ikegami, and Suriyanti Su. 2021. "Estimation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Resources in the East of Malaysia" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 1: 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010022

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