Next Article in Journal
Parametric Study of a Taut Compliant Mooring System for a FOWT Compared to a Catenary Mooring
Next Article in Special Issue
Coupling between Benthic Nutrient Cycling and Pelagic Phytoplankton Community in Taiwan Strait in Spring 2018
Previous Article in Journal
Constitutive Relationship Proposition of Marine Soft Soil in Korea Using Finite Strain Consolidation Theory
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Phytoplankton Growth Phase on Settling Properties of Marine Aggregates
Article

Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter as a Tracer of Fecal Contamination for Bathing Water Quality Monitoring in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea (Latium, Italy)

1
Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology, DEB, Università Degli Studi della Tuscia, Port of Civitavecchia, 00053 Civitavecchia (RM), Italy
2
Fondazione CMCC—Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, 73100 Lecce, Italy
3
Institute of Polar Sciences, National Research Council (ISP-CNR), Spianata S. Raineri 86, 98122 Messina, Italy
4
Institute for Biological Resources and Marine Biotechnology, National Research Council (IRBIM-CNR), Spianata S. Raineri 86, 98122 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060430
Received: 1 May 2020 / Revised: 10 June 2020 / Accepted: 11 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
Dissolved organic matter present in natural aquatic environments is a heterogeneous mixture of allochthonous and autochthonous materials. In coastal areas vulnerable to sewage waste, its biologically active component, the chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), is expected to change its composition and distribution in relation to anthropogenic activities, suggesting the possible use of CDOM as a proxy of fecal contamination. This study aimed at testing such hypothesis by investigating and relating the optical properties of CDOM with Escherichia coli abundance, physiological state, and enzymatic activities in a bathing area of the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea (Latium, Italy) affected by urban wastewaters. The parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) applied to the excitation–emission matrices (EEMs) of CDOM allowed us to distinguish three main components: C1 (λExEm = 342 nm/435 nm), C2 (λExEm = 281–373 nm/460 nm), and C3 (λExEm = 286 nm/360 nm). C1 and C2 corresponded to humic acids of terrestrial origin, while C3 to tryptophan, whose fluorescence peak was detected close to sewage sites, strongly related to active E. coli cells. The comparison between spectral and microbiological methods is suggested as a suitable approach to monitor bathing water quality for the implementation of coastal observing system capability. View Full-Text
Keywords: CDOM; fecal contamination; Escherichia coli; bathing waters; enzyme activities; coastal observing systems CDOM; fecal contamination; Escherichia coli; bathing waters; enzyme activities; coastal observing systems
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Madonia, A.; Caruso, G.; Piazzolla, D.; Bonamano, S.; Piermattei, V.; Zappalà, G.; Marcelli, M. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter as a Tracer of Fecal Contamination for Bathing Water Quality Monitoring in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea (Latium, Italy). J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 430. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060430

AMA Style

Madonia A, Caruso G, Piazzolla D, Bonamano S, Piermattei V, Zappalà G, Marcelli M. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter as a Tracer of Fecal Contamination for Bathing Water Quality Monitoring in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea (Latium, Italy). Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(6):430. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060430

Chicago/Turabian Style

Madonia, Alice, Gabriella Caruso, Daniele Piazzolla, Simone Bonamano, Viviana Piermattei, Giuseppe Zappalà, and Marco Marcelli. 2020. "Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter as a Tracer of Fecal Contamination for Bathing Water Quality Monitoring in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea (Latium, Italy)" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8, no. 6: 430. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060430

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop