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Using Artificial-Reef Knowledge to Enhance the Ecological Function of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: Implications for Fish Abundance and Diversity

1
DTU Aqua, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kemitorvet, Building 202, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
2
Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 20 A (or F), 114 18 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(5), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050332
Received: 13 April 2020 / Revised: 28 April 2020 / Accepted: 5 May 2020 / Published: 8 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Biology)
As the development of large-scale offshore wind farms (OWFs) amplifies due to technological progress and a growing demand for renewable energy, associated footprints on the seabed are becoming increasingly common within soft-bottom environments. A large part of the footprint is the scour protection, often consisting of rocks that are positioned on the seabed to prevent erosion. As such, scour protection may resemble a marine rocky reef and could have important ecosystem functions. While acknowledging that OWFs disrupt the marine environment, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the effects of scour protection on fish assemblages, relate them to the effects of designated artificial reefs (ARs) and, ultimately, reveal how future scour protection may be tailored to support abundance and diversity of marine species. The results revealed frequent increases in abundances of species associated with hard substrata after the establishment of artificial structures (i.e., both OWFs and ARs) in the marine environment. Literature indicated that scour protection meets the requirements to function as an AR, often providing shelter, nursery, reproduction, and/or feeding opportunities. Using knowledge from AR models, this review suggests methodology for ecological improvements of future scour protections, aiming towards a more successful integration into the marine environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: scour protection; offshore wind farm; renewable energy; artificial reef; ecosystem restoration; ecological engineering scour protection; offshore wind farm; renewable energy; artificial reef; ecosystem restoration; ecological engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Glarou, M.; Zrust, M.; Svendsen, J.C. Using Artificial-Reef Knowledge to Enhance the Ecological Function of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: Implications for Fish Abundance and Diversity. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 332. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050332

AMA Style

Glarou M, Zrust M, Svendsen JC. Using Artificial-Reef Knowledge to Enhance the Ecological Function of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: Implications for Fish Abundance and Diversity. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(5):332. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050332

Chicago/Turabian Style

Glarou, Maria; Zrust, Martina; Svendsen, Jon C. 2020. "Using Artificial-Reef Knowledge to Enhance the Ecological Function of Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: Implications for Fish Abundance and Diversity" J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 8, no. 5: 332. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050332

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