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Open AccessArticle

Long-Term Performance of Mega-Nourishments: Role of Directional Wave Climate and Initial Geometry

1
Cátedras-CONACyT, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Insurgentes Sur 1582, Ciudad de México 03940, Mexico
2
Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Puerto de Abrigo, Sisal 97355, Mexico
3
Laboratorio Nacional de Resiliencia Costera, Laboratorios Nacionales CONACYT, Yucatán 97835, Mexico
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Physics Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
5
Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Princetonlaan 8a, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8120965
Received: 21 October 2020 / Revised: 17 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 26 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Coastal Engineering)
Concentrated mega-nourishments, built as coastal protection measures for decadal time scales, are intended to diffuse, that is to erode and to supply sand to the nearby beaches and dunes by profiting of the natural drivers. Here, we aim to quantify the role of the wave incidence angle and initial geometry on the long-term evolution of mega-nourishments, in particular the Zandmotor (the Netherlands), using a nonlinear morphodynamic model for large-scale shoreline dynamics. Synthetic wave climates based on measurements are created to systematically vary the wave conditions. Simulations show that mega-nourishment diffusivity decreases linearly with an increasing percentage of high-angle waves (>45° incidence with respect to the global shoreline orientation in deep water). For wave climates with more than 80% of high-angle waves, erosional hotspots develop at the sides of the mega-nourishment. In unimodal high-angle wave climates, hotspot growth rates are large and alongshore migration of the nourishment can increase up to 40 m/year. The role of initial geometry is studied by creating synthetic nourishments that vary in shape, asymmetry, and volume. Slender initial shapes are less diffusive than wider shapes. The initial asymmetry influences the asymmetry in sand feeding to adjacent beaches throughout 50 years, which for symmetric nourishments is controlled by the imbalance in the wave climate. Smaller nourishments than the Zandmotor are more diffusive. This work contributes to a more general understanding of mega-nourishment evolution and may serve as guide for future mega-nourishment design. View Full-Text
Keywords: mega-nourishment; morphodynamic modeling; shoreline diffusivity; high-angle wave instability; alongshore transport mega-nourishment; morphodynamic modeling; shoreline diffusivity; high-angle wave instability; alongshore transport
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arriaga, J.; Ribas, F.; Falqués, A.; Rutten, J.; Ruessink, G. Long-Term Performance of Mega-Nourishments: Role of Directional Wave Climate and Initial Geometry. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 965. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8120965

AMA Style

Arriaga J, Ribas F, Falqués A, Rutten J, Ruessink G. Long-Term Performance of Mega-Nourishments: Role of Directional Wave Climate and Initial Geometry. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(12):965. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8120965

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arriaga, Jaime; Ribas, Francesca; Falqués, Albert; Rutten, Jantien; Ruessink, Gerben. 2020. "Long-Term Performance of Mega-Nourishments: Role of Directional Wave Climate and Initial Geometry" J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 8, no. 12: 965. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8120965

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