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Assessing Cyber Challenges of Maritime Navigation

Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, 6320 Portorož, Slovenia
Faculty of Maritime Studies, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), 21027 Ispra, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 776;
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 25 September 2020 / Accepted: 1 October 2020 / Published: 3 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
This paper provides a close investigation into the landscape of both cyber threats and actual incidents in the maritime sector, identifying the cyber trends and challenges as they relate to safe navigation and marine shipping. As an important subset of cyber threats that impact many maritime systems, the vulnerabilities of satellite navigation systems, in particular the Global Positioning System (GPS), receive special attention. For this article, a systematic literature review was conducted, complemented by the research and analysis of a specific spoofing event. Analyzing available resources, we might summarize that a shift in mind-set is essential to direct more attention and resources toward cybersecurity as well as the necessity for manufacturers to improve the cybersecurity of their products, as shipping systems currently remain vulnerable to cybercriminals. There is a need for multiple positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) systems onboard maritime vessels to complement GPS-only navigation. The use of multiple satellite navigation constellations, public as well as private, in combination with the terrestrial components of an enhanced LOng-RAnge Navigation (eLoran) system and ports’ laser-based aid system for berthing and docking should provide the shipping industry with the direly needed increased protection from cyber-attackers for the foreseeable future. View Full-Text
Keywords: maritime cyber; cybersecurity; the safety of navigation; shipboard systems; GPS jamming and spoofing maritime cyber; cybersecurity; the safety of navigation; shipboard systems; GPS jamming and spoofing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Androjna, A.; Brcko, T.; Pavic, I.; Greidanus, H. Assessing Cyber Challenges of Maritime Navigation. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 776.

AMA Style

Androjna A, Brcko T, Pavic I, Greidanus H. Assessing Cyber Challenges of Maritime Navigation. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(10):776.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Androjna, Andrej, Tanja Brcko, Ivica Pavic, and Harm Greidanus. 2020. "Assessing Cyber Challenges of Maritime Navigation" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8, no. 10: 776.

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