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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Characterization of Overtopping Waves on Sea Dikes with Gentle and Shallow Foreshores

1
Flanders Hydraulics Research, 2140 Antwerp, Belgium
2
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
3
Maritime Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya—BarcelonaTech (UPC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain
4
Department of Civil Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 60, 9052 Gent, Belgium
5
Department of Civil, Environmental and Applied System Engineering, Kansai University; Suita, Osaka 564-8680, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100752
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 25 September 2020 / Published: 27 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
Due to ongoing climate change, overtopping risk is increasing. In order to have effective countermeasures, it is useful to understand overtopping processes in details. In this study overtopping flow on a dike with gentle and shallow foreshores are investigated using a non-hydrostatic wave-flow model, SWASH (an acronym of Simulating WAves till SHore). The SWASH model in 2DV (i.e., flume like configuration) is first validated using the data of long crested wave cases with second order wave generation in the physical model test conducted. After that it is used to produce overtopping flow in different wave conditions and bathymetries. The results indicated that the overtopping risk is better characterized by the time dependent h (overtopping flow depth) and u (overtopping flow velocity) instead of hmax (maximum overtopping flow depth) and umax (maximum overtopping flow velocity), which led to overestimation of the risk. The time dependent u and h are strongly influenced by the dike configuration, namely by the promenade width and the existence of a vertical wall on the promenade: the simulation shows that the vertical wall induces seaward velocity on the dike which might be an extra risk during extreme events. View Full-Text
Keywords: wave overtopping; average overtopping discharge; individual volume; overtopping flow depth; overtopping flow velocity; promenade; vertical wall; SWASH wave overtopping; average overtopping discharge; individual volume; overtopping flow depth; overtopping flow velocity; promenade; vertical wall; SWASH
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MDPI and ACS Style

Suzuki, T.; Altomare, C.; Yasuda, T.; Verwaest, T. Characterization of Overtopping Waves on Sea Dikes with Gentle and Shallow Foreshores. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 752.

AMA Style

Suzuki T, Altomare C, Yasuda T, Verwaest T. Characterization of Overtopping Waves on Sea Dikes with Gentle and Shallow Foreshores. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(10):752.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Suzuki, Tomohiro; Altomare, Corrado; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Verwaest, Toon. 2020. "Characterization of Overtopping Waves on Sea Dikes with Gentle and Shallow Foreshores" J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 8, no. 10: 752.

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