# A Non-Linear BEM–FEM Coupled Scheme for the Performance of Flexible Flapping-Foil Thrusters

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Problem Description

- the space-fixed frame $(x,z)$, with respect to which the foil moves in the negative direction of $x-axis$ with constant cruising speed $U$
- the body-fixed (non-inertial) $({x}^{\prime},{z}^{\prime})$ positioned at the foil’s center of rotation with ${x}^{\prime}-axis$ in the direction of the un-deformed chord line
- the body-fixed (non-inertial) $({x}^{\u2033},{z}^{\u2033})$ position at the leading edge (LE). This frame is exclusively used for the structural response problem.

## 3. Mathematical Formulation

#### 3.1. Structural Dynamics of the Foil

#### 3.2. Modelling the Fluid Flow around the Foil

#### 3.3. Hydrodynamic Pressure and Force

## 4. Numerical Methods

#### 4.1. Finite Element Method (FEM)

#### 4.1.1. Discretization Scheme for FEM

#### 4.1.2. Time Integration

#### 4.2. Boundary Element Method (BEM)

#### 4.2.1. Boundary Integral Equation (BIE) & Discretization

#### 4.2.2. Solution Schemes

**BEM–ABM**: The DtN operator, derived from the BIE, acts as a constraint to the dynamical system evolution equation that is constructed using the pressure-type Kutta condition. We consider ${\mu}_{W1}$ as the dynamic variable of the problem, and thus, the formulation allows for the treatment of an initial value problem (IVP). In order to express the pressure-type Kutta condition as a function of $\upsilon ={\mu}_{W1},$ we use the DtN map in Equation (34), in conjunction with the discretized form of Equation (14), to obtain a (spatially and temporarily) nonlocal differential equation, with explicit and implicit nonlinearities with respect to $\upsilon ={\mu}_{W1}.$ The latter is finally put in the following form,

**BEM–NR**: The BIE along with the discretized form of the pressure-type Kutta condition, detailed in Appendix A, is used to construct the complete system of equations, with the boundary fields ${\Phi}_{B}$ and ${\mu}_{W1}$ as unknowns. A set of ${N}_{B}+1$ equations can be solved for the unknown values of ${\Phi}_{Bi}$ and ${\mu}_{w1}$ at each time step, which can be written in a compact form

#### 4.3. Non-Linear BEM-FEM

## 5. Results

#### 5.1. Convergence Characteristics of the Numerical Scheme

#### 5.2. The Case of a Flexible Flapping Foil

#### 5.3. The Case of a Flexible Heaving Foil

#### 5.4. Effects of Flexural Rigidity on Froude Efficiency

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

BEM | Boundary element method |

FEM | Finite element method |

TE | Trailing edge |

LE | Leading edge |

GIM | General iterative method |

TSM | Time stepping method |

IBVP | Initial boundary value problem |

IVP | Initial value problem |

BIE | Boundary integral equation |

$c$ | Chord length |

$g$ | Nominal gravitational acceleration |

${x}_{R}$ | Location of pivot axis from leading edge |

$h$ | Heave response |

$\theta $ | Pitch angle |

${\theta}_{o}$ | Pitch amplitude |

${h}_{o}$ | Heave amplitude |

$\omega $ | Angular frequency of motion |

${\rho}_{f}$ | Water density |

${\rho}_{s}$ | Material density |

$m$ | Foil mass |

$a,b$ | Proportional damping coefficients |

$L(t)$ | Instantaneous lift force |

$\eta $ | Froude efficiency |

$\Phi $ | Potential field |

## Appendix A

## Appendix B

## References

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**Figure 1.**Basic notation: (

**a**) flexible flapping-foil kinematics with respect to a space-fixed Cartesian coordinate system (x, z) and (

**b**) thickness profile in a body-fixed cartesian coordinate system (x’’, z’’).

**Figure 2.**Unsteady hydrodynamics notation for the chord-wise flexible flapping foil, introducing the inertial and body-fixed coordinate systems for the hydrodynamics problem formulation.

**Figure 3.**Comparison of the time-evolution of trailing vortex sheet for four periods of time. The simplified wake model (upper) and the free wake model (lower) are shown with the blue vectors denoting the potential jump. In the lower figure the simplified wake model (dashed line) is included for comparison purposes.

**Figure 4.**Static response for non-prismatic beams and comparison with data from [51]. The transverse displacement is presented as a function of beam length in the upper subplots for two values of taper ratio. The corresponding normalized beam profiles are shown in the lower subplots, where the maximum thickness is 0.25 m. (

**a**) Deflection and (

**b**) shape of variable thickness beam. (

**c**) Deflection and (

**d**) shape of beam with linear thickness distribution.

**Figure 5.**Dynamic response of the tip of a cantilever beam under tip point load for one period of motion and comparison against the analytic solution. Data from Warburton [52]. (

**a**) Deflection, (

**b**) tip loading of the beam.

**Figure 6.**Relative error (%) of (

**a**) the thrust efficiency coefficient ${C}_{T}$ (left) and (

**b**) the propulsive efficiency ${\eta}_{F}$ (right) with respect to the value of the finest discretization simulated with BEM–ABM. The error is denoted by the color-bar, and the contours display the iso-λ values. For the following kinematic parameters ${h}_{o}/c=0.75,{\alpha}_{eff}={22}^{\circ},\mathrm{Str}=0{.2,\mathrm{x}}_{R}={x}_{LE},\psi =-{90}^{\circ}$.

**Figure 7.**Relative error (%) of (

**a**) the thrust efficiency coefficient ${C}_{T}$ (left) and (

**b**) the propulsive efficiency ${\eta}_{F}$ (right) with respect to the value of the finest discretization simulated with BEM–NR. The error is denoted by the color-bar, and the contours display the iso-λ values. For the following kinematic parameters ${h}_{o}/c=0.75,{\alpha}_{eff}={22}^{\circ},\mathrm{Str}=0{.3,\mathrm{x}}_{R}={x}_{LE},\psi =-{90}^{\circ}$.

**Figure 8.**Relative error (%) of (

**a**) the thrust efficiency coefficient ${C}_{T}$ (left) and (

**b**) the propulsive efficiency ${\eta}_{F}$ (right) with respect to the value of the finest discretization simulated with BEM–NR. The error is denoted by the color-bar, and the contours display the iso-λ values. For the following kinematic parameters ${h}_{o}/c=0.75,{\alpha}_{eff}={22}^{\circ},\mathrm{Str}=0{.3,\mathrm{x}}_{R}={x}_{LE},\psi =-{90}^{\circ}$.

**Figure 9.**Time history of foil pitch and heave against thrust and lift forces for the chordwise rigid foil with simple harmonic motion and comparison with the experimental data from [32]. (

**a**) Pitch angle, (

**b**) Heave, (

**c**) Horizontal force, (

**d**) Vertical force of the foil.

**Figure 10.**Time history of foil pitch and heave against thrust and lift forces for chordwise flexible foil with simple harmonic motion profile and comparison with the experimental data from [32]. (

**a**) Pitch angle, (

**b**) Heave, (

**c**) Horizontal force, (

**d**) Vertical force of the foil.

**Figure 11.**Comparison with experimental data (denoted by circles) from [34] for the case of a flexible flat plate with $D=0.018\mathrm{Nm},{h}_{o}=0.004\mathrm{m}$ and $\mathrm{Re}=6000$: (

**a**) TE/LE amplitude response ratio and (

**b**) maximum pressure difference recorded at the TE during simulations.

**Figure 12.**Pressure coefficient instantaneous distribution comparison between (

**a**) BEM–ABM and (

**b**) BEM–NR, for the purely-heaving flexible plate with $\omega /{\omega}_{o}=3.$ The deformed foil deflection is added for illustration purposes.

**Figure 13.**(

**a**) Phase lag as a function of the frequency and comparison with experimental data (denoted by black triangles) from [34]. (

**b**) Thrust nondimensionalized by the characteristic elastic force, as a function of the frequency.

**Figure 14.**Envelopes of the foil’s elastic deflection during the last period of motion for two frequency values, one corresponding to the first resonance (upper figure) and the other (lower figure) for an intermediate frequency.

**Figure 15.**Propulsive performance of a chord-wise flexible NACA 0012 flapping foil in terms of the (

**a**) thrust coefficient and (

**b**) Froude efficiency as functions of Young’s modulus for the following parameters $Str=0.3,U=0.4\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s},{h}_{o}/c=0.75,\psi ={90}^{\circ},{x}_{R}=1/3c,c=0.1\mathrm{m}.$

**Figure 16.**Typical configurations of the un-deformed (black) and deformable camber line (blue curves) on the trajectory of the leading edge (LE; dashed line) for a purely heaving foil.

**Figure 17.**Propulsive performance of a chord-wise flexible foil with $E=3.45{10}^{5}\mathrm{Pa}$ NACA 0012 flapping foil (solid lines) compared to the equivalent rigid foil (dashed lines). (

**a**) Thrust coefficient and (

**b**) Froude efficiency for $U=0.3\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s},{\theta}_{o}={10}^{\circ},\psi ={90}^{\circ},{x}_{R}=1/3c,$ as functions of Strouhal number.

Mabie et al. [50] | Relative Error with FEM (% ×10^{−3}) | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

frequency | α = 5.0 | α = 10.0 | α = 5.0 | α = 10.0 |

Ω_{1} | 30.9820 | 72.0487 | 0.1451 | 0.0231 |

Ω_{2} | 91.9273 | 186.802 | 0.0410 | 0.2007 |

Ω_{3} | 199.1682 | 371.238 | 0.0197 | 0.1413 |

Ω_{4} | 356.2088 | 635.049 | 0.0198 | 0.1609 |

Ω_{5} | 564.1394 | 981.657 | 0.0835 | 0.5628 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Anevlavi, D.E.; Filippas, E.S.; Karperaki, A.E.; Belibassakis, K.A.
A Non-Linear BEM–FEM Coupled Scheme for the Performance of Flexible Flapping-Foil Thrusters. *J. Mar. Sci. Eng.* **2020**, *8*, 56.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010056

**AMA Style**

Anevlavi DE, Filippas ES, Karperaki AE, Belibassakis KA.
A Non-Linear BEM–FEM Coupled Scheme for the Performance of Flexible Flapping-Foil Thrusters. *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering*. 2020; 8(1):56.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010056

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Anevlavi, Dimitra E., Evangelos S. Filippas, Angeliki E. Karperaki, and Kostas A. Belibassakis.
2020. "A Non-Linear BEM–FEM Coupled Scheme for the Performance of Flexible Flapping-Foil Thrusters" *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering* 8, no. 1: 56.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010056